Flavonoid-Rich Nutrients for the Skin

Chapter

Abstract

Flavonoids are a group of widespread plant constituents available from dietary sources such as cocoa, green tea, soy, berries, or other fruits like apples, lemons, cherries, plums, and peaches. There is evidence that flavonoid-rich products contribute to the protection of skin against UV-induced damage at the molecular and cellular level and that they may as well improve overall skin conditions. Regular intake or topical application confers significantly to photoprotection and helps maintaining skin health by improving skin structure and function. Photoprotective effects mediated by flavonoids are moderate but likely contribute to permanent, overall protection. Effects are comparable to those reported for other dietary constitutents such as carotenoids and other antioxidants.

Keywords

Hairless Mouse Cocoa Product Cocoa Powder Ginkgo Biloba Extract Pulse Wave Amplitude 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements Parts of our studies have been supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 663, B1).

References

  1. 1.
    Afaq, F., Mukhtar, H.: Botanical antioxidants in the prevention of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Exp. Dermatol. 15, 678–684 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arct, J., Pytkowska, K.: Flavonoids as components of biologically active cosmeceuticals. Clin. Dermatol. 26, 347–357 (2008)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beecher, G.: Overview of dietary flavonoids: nomenclature, occurrence and intake. J. Nutr. 133, 3248S–3254S (2003)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boots, A.W., Haenen, G.R., Bast, A.: Health effects of quercetin: from antioxidant to nutraceutical. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 585(2–3), 325–337 (2008)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Choquenet, B., Couteau, C., Paparis, E., Coiffard, L.J.M.: Quercetin and rutin as potential sunscreen agents: determination of efficacy by an in vitro method. J. Nat. Prod. 71, 1117–1118 (2008)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dinkova-Kostova, A.T.: Phytochemicals as protectors against ultraviolet radiation: versatility of effects and mechanisms. Planta Med 74, 1548–1559 (2008)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Harnly, J.M., Doherty, R.F., Beecher, G.R., Holden, J.M., Haytowitz, D.B., Bhagwat, S., Gebhardt, S.: Flavonoid content of U.S. fruits, vegetables, and nuts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 9966–9977 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Heinrich, U., Neukam, K., Tronnier, H., Sies, H., Stahl, W.: Long-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in women. J. Nutr. 136, 1565–1569 (2006)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heiss, C., Finis, D., Kleinbongard, P., Hoffmann, A., Rassaf, T., Kelm, M., Sies, H.: Sustained increase in flow-mediated dilation after daily intake of high-flavanol cocoa drink over 1 week. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 49, 74–80 (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heiss, C., Schroeter, H., Balzer, J., Kleinbongard, P., Matern, S., Sies, H., Kelm, M.: Endothelial function, nitric oxide, and cocoa flavanols. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 47, S128–S135 (2006)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hsu, S.: Green tea and the skin. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 52, 1049–1059 (2005)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Katiyar, S.K.: Silymarin and skin cancer prevention: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. Int. J. Oncol. 26, 169–176 (2005)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Keen, C.L., Holt, R.R., Oteiza, P.I., Fraga, C.G., Schmitz, H.H.: Cocoa antioxidants and cardiovascular health. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81, 298S–303S (2005)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Manach, C., Scalbert, A., Morand, C., Rémésy, C., Jiménez, L.: Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79, 727–747 (2004)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Neukam, K., Stahl, W., Tronnier, H., Sies, H., Heinrich, U.: Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely increases microcirculation in human skin. Eur. J. Nutr. 46, 53–56 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rees, J.R., Stukel, T.A., Perry, A.E., Zens, M.S., Spencer, S.K., Karagas, M.R.: Tea consumption and basal cell and squamous cell skin cancer: results of a case-control study. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 56, 781–785 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sies, H., Stahl, W.: Nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 24, 173–200 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Solovchenko, A., Schmitz-Eiberger, M.: Significance of skin flavonoids for UV-B-protection in apple fruits. J. Exp. Bot. 54, 1977–1984 (2003)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stahl, W., Mukhtar, H., Afaq, F., Sies, H.: Vitamins and polyphenols in systemic photoprotection. In: Gilchrest, B.A., Krutmann, J. (eds.) Skin Aging. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Steffen, Y., Gruber, C., Schewe, T., Sies, H.: Mono-O-methylated flavanols and other flavonoids as inhibitors of endothelial NADPH oxidase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 469, 206–219 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stevenson, D.E., Hurst, R.D.: Polyphenolic phytochemicals–just antioxidants or much more? Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 64, 2900–2916 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Uehara, M., Sugiura, H., Sakurai, K.: A trial of Oolong tea in the management of recalcitrant atopic dermatitis. Arch. Dermatol. 137, 42–43 (2001)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Valko, M., Leibfritz, D., Moncol, J., Cronin, M.T., Mazur, M., Telser, J.: Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 39, 44–84 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wolfe, K.L., Liu, R.H.: Structure–activity relationship of flavonoids in the cellular antioxidant activity assay. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56, 8404–8411 (2008)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yusuf, N., Irby, C., Katiyar, S.K., Elmets, C.A.: Photoprotective effects of green tea polyphenols. Photodermatol. Photoim­munol. Photomed. 23, 48–56 (2007)CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Biochemie und Molekularbiologie IHeinrich-Heine-Universität DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany

Personalised recommendations