Virulence and Pathogenicity of Fungal Pathogens with Special Reference to Candida albicans

  • Mohd Sajjad Ahmad KhanEmail author
  • Iqbal Ahmad
  • Farrukh Aqil
  • Mohd Owais
  • Mohd Shahid
  • Javed Musarrat


The frequency of severe systemic fungal diseases has increased in the last few decades. The clinical use of broad spectrum antibacterial drugs and immunosuppressive agents after organ transplantation, cancer chemotherapy, and advancements in surgery are associated with increasing risk of fungal infection. Despite the effectiveness of available antifungals in combating such infections, the emergence of drug resistance to antifungals, and problems of toxicity and poor delivery of drugs at the target site in systemic infections, have necessitated a systematic approach to the study of fungal pathogens, host–fungi interactions, and identification of virulence factors. Characterization of virulence factors is expected to improve understanding of fungal pathogenesis and to help explore new drug targets. In this article we discuss the process of fungal infections, virulence factors and pathogenicity of fungal pathogens, with special reference to Candida albicans. Adherence, dimorphism, phenotypic switching, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, biofilm formation, and ability to adapt at host body temperature are some of the well-known virulence factors among pathogenic fungi and are discussed in relation to C. albicans.


Virulence Factor Invasive Fungal Infection Planktonic Cell Phenotypic Switching Yeast Form 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohd Sajjad Ahmad Khan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Iqbal Ahmad
    • 1
  • Farrukh Aqil
    • 2
  • Mohd Owais
    • 3
  • Mohd Shahid
    • 4
  • Javed Musarrat
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural SciencesAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia
  2. 2.Brown Cancer CenterUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  3. 3.Interdisciplinary Biotechnology UnitAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia
  4. 4.Department of Microbiology, JN Medical CollegeAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia
  5. 5.DNA Research Chair, Department of ZoologyKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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