Helmet Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Theory and Technology

  • Giacomo Bellani
  • Stefano Isgrò
  • Roberto Fumagalli
Chapter

Abstract

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is administered to patients to maintain the airway at a selected pressure (usually named the positive end-expiratory pressure, PEEP) higher than that of the atmosphere one. PEEP application has several well-known effects on the respiratory system and hemodynamics, whose description is not among the aims of this chapter. The applied pressure is kept constant throughout the whole respiratory cycle so that intrapulmonary pressure swings around the set level. Patients can breath spontaneously at the selected pressure without any active support of inspiration; it follows that CPAP cannot be strictly considered a form of “ventilation.”

References

  1. 1.
    Bellani G, Patroniti N, Greco M et al (2008) The use of helmets to deliver continuous positive airway pressure in hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. Minerva Anestesiol 74:651–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Codazzi D, Nacoti M, Passoni M et al (2006) Continuous positive airway pressure with modified helmet for treatment of hypoxemic acute respiratory failure in infants and a preschool population: a feasibility study. Pediatr Crit Care Med 7(5):455–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Trevisanuto D, Grazzina N, Doglioni N et al (2005) A new device for administration of continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants: comparison with a standard nasal CPAP continuous positive airway pressure system. Intensive Care Med 31:859–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Navalesi P, Costa R, Ceriana P et al (2007) Non-invasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: helmet versus facial mask. Intensive Care Med 33(1):74–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Patroniti N, Foti G, Manfio A et al (2003) Head helmet versus face mask for non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure: a physiological study. Intensive Care Med 29:1680–1687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Foti G, Sangalli F, Berra L et al (2009) Is helmet CPAP first line pre-hospital treatment of presumed severe acute pulmonary edema? Intensive Care Med 35(4):656–662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Squadrone V, Coha M, Cerutti E et al (2005) Continuous positive airway pressure for treatment of postoperative hypoxemia – a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 293(5):589–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Taccone P, Hess D, Caironi P et al (2004) Continuous positive airway pressure delivered with a “helmet”: effects on carbon dioxide rebreathing. Critical Care Med 32:2090–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Racca F, Appendini L, Gregoretti C et al (2008) Helmet ventilation and carbon dioxide rebreathing: effects of adding a leak at the helmet ports. Intensive Care Med 34(8):1461–1468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Patroniti N, Saini M, Zanella A et al (2007) Danger of helmet continuous positive airway pressure during failure of fresh gas source supply. Intensive Care Med 33:153–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cavaliere F, Conti G, Costa R, Proietti R, Sciuto A, Masieri S (2004) Noise exposure during noninvasive ventilation with a helmet, a nasal mask, and a facial mask. Intensive Care Med 30:1755–1760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giacomo Bellani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stefano Isgrò
    • 1
    • 2
  • Roberto Fumagalli
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Experimental MedicineMilano-Bicocca UniversityMonzaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Perioperative and Intensive Care MedicineSan Gerardo HospitalMonzaItaly

Personalised recommendations