The Planetary X-ray Emission

  • Anil BhardwajEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings book series (ASSSP)


With the advent of Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories, several new solar system bodies have been discovered to be an X-ray source at energies below 2 keV: leading to significant advances in the field of planetary X-ray emission and astronomy during the last one decade. Apart from the Sun, the known X-ray emitters now include Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, planetary satellites (Moon, Io, Europa, and Ganymede), all active comets, the Io plasma torus, the rings of Saturn, the exospheres of Earth, Venus and Mars, and the heliosphere. Progress in modeling X-ray emission and laboratory studies of X-ray production have also greatly contributed in enhancing our understanding of X-rays from the solar system bodies. This chapter provides an overview of the planetary X-rays, their production source processes and important characteristics.


Solar Wind Solar System Planetary Atmosphere Galilean Satellite Solar System Body 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bhardwaj, A., Gladstone, G.R.: Auroral emissions of the giant planets. Rev. Geophys. 38, 295–353 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhardwaj, A.: X-ray emission from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth: a short review. In: Bhardwaj A., et al. (eds.) Advances in Geosciences, vol. 3, pp. 215–230. World Scientific, Singapore (2006)Google Scholar
  3. Bhardwaj, A., Lisse, C.M.: X-rays in the solar system. In: McFadden, L.A., Weisman, P.R., Johnson, T.V. (eds.) Encyclopedia of the Solar System, 2nd edn., pp. 637–685. Academic Press, New York (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhardwaj, A., et al.: X-rays from solar system objects. Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1135–1189 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhardwaj, A., et al.: X-ray emission from planets and comets: relationship with solar x-rays and solar wind. In: Bhardwaj A., et al. (eds.) Advances in Geosciences, vol. 15, pp. 229–244. World Scientific, Singapore (2009)Google Scholar
  6. Branduardi-Raymont, G., Bhardwaj, A., Elsner, R.F., Gladstone, G.R., Ramsay, G., Rodriguez, P., Soria, R., Waite, J.H. Jr, Cravens, T.E.: A study of Jupiter’s aurorae with XMM-Newton. Astron. Astrophys. 463, 761–774 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Cravens, T.E.: Comet Hyakutake x-ray source: charge transfer of solar wind heavy ions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 105–109 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Cravens, T.E.: X-ray emission from comets. Science. 296, 1042–1046 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Dennerl, K., Lisse, C.M., Bhardwaj, A., Burwitz, V., Englhauser, J., Gunell, H., Holmström, M., Jansen, F., Kharchenko, V., Rodríguez-Pascual, P.M.: First observation of Mars with XMM-Newton: high resolution x-ray spectroscopy with RGS. Astron. Astrophys. 451, 709–722 (2006)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Dennerl, K.: X-rays from non-magnetic planets. In: Bhardwaj, A., et al. (eds.) Advances in Geosciences, vol. 15, pp. 53–74. World Scientific, Singapore (2009)Google Scholar
  11. Elsner, R.F., Gladstone, G.R., Waite, J.H. Jr, Crary, F.J., Howell, R.R., Johnson, R.E., Ford, P.G., Metzger, A.E., Hurley, K.C., Feigelson, E.D., Garmire, G.P., Bhardwaj, A., Grodent, D., Majeed, T., Tennant, A.F., Weisskopf, M.C.: Discovery of soft x-ray emission from Io, Europa, and the Io Plasma Torus. Astrophys. J. 572, 1077–1082 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Kharchenko, V., Bhardwaj, A., Dalgarno, A., Schultz, D., Stancil, P.: Spectra of the north and south Jovian x-ray auroras. J. Geophys. Res. 113, A08229 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Krasnopolsky, V.A., Greenwood, J.B., Stancil, P.C.: X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission from comets. Space Sci. Rev. 113, 271–374 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Lisse, C.M., et al.: Discovery of x-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission from comet C/Hyakutake 1996 B2. Science. 274, 205–209 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Lisse, C.M., Cravens, T.E., Dennerl, K.: X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission from comets. In: Festou, M.C., Keller, H.U., Weaver, H.A. (eds.) Comet II, pp. 631–643. University Arizona Press, Tucson (2004)Google Scholar
  16. Metzger, A.E., Gilman, D.A., Luthey, J.L., Hurley, K.C., Schnopper, H.W., Seward, F.D., Sullivan, J.: The detection of x-rays from Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 7731 (1983)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Singhal, R.P., Chakravarty, S.C., Bhardwaj, A., Prasad, B.: Energetic electron precipitation in Jupiter’s upper atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 18245–18256 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Space Physics LaboratoryVikram Sarabhai Space CentreTrivandrumIndia

Personalised recommendations