Advertisement

On the Impact of Serializing Contention Management on STM Performance

  • Tomer Heber
  • Danny Hendler
  • Adi Suissa
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5923)

Abstract

Transactional memory (TM) is an emerging concurrent programming abstraction. Numerous software-based transactional memory (STM) implementations have been developed in recent years. STM implementations must guarantee transaction atomicity and isolation. In order to ensure progress, an STM implementation must resolve transaction collisions by consulting a contention manager (CM).

Recent work established that serializing contention management - a technique in which the execution of colliding transactions is serialized for eliminating repeat-collisions - can dramatically improve STM performance in high-contention workloads. In low-contention and highly-parallel workloads, however, excessive serialization of memory transactions may limit concurrency too much and hurt performance. It is therefore important to better understand how the impact of serialization on STM performance varies as a function of workload characteristics.

We investigate how serializing CM influences the performance of STM systems. Specifically, we study serialization’s influence on STM throughput (number of committed transactions per time unit) and efficiency (ratio between the extent of “useful” work done by the STM and work “wasted” by aborts) as the workload’s level of contention varies. Towards this goal, we implement CBench - a synthetic benchmark that generates workloads in which transactions have (parameter) pre-determined length and probability of being aborted in the lack of contention reduction mechanisms. CBench facilitates evaluating the efficiency of contention management algorithms across the full spectrum of contention levels.

The characteristics of TM workloads generated by real applications may vary over time. To achieve good performance, CM algorithms need to monitor these characteristics and change their behavior accordingly. We implement adaptive algorithms that control the activation of serialization CM according to measured contention level, based on a novel low-overhead serialization algorithm. We then evaluate our new algorithms on CBench-generated workloads and on additional well-known STM benchmark applications. We believe our results shed light on the manner in which serializing CM should be used by STM systems.

Keywords

Adaptive Algorithm Transactional Memory Contention Level Software Transactional Memory Synthetic Benchmark 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ansari, M., Luján, M., Kotselidis, C., Jarvis, K., Kirkham, C.C., Watson, I.: Steal-on-abort: Improving transactional memory performance through dynamic transaction reordering. In: HiPEAC, pp. 4–18 (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Attiya, H., Epstein, L., Shachnai, H., Tamir, T.: Transactional contention management as a non-clairvoyant scheduling problem. In: PODC, pp. 308–315 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dolev, S., Hendler, D., Suissa, A.: CAR-STM: scheduling-based collision avoidance and resolution for software transactional memory. In: PODC, pp. 125–134 (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dragojevic, A., Guerraoui, R., Singh, A.V., Singh, V.: Preventing versus curing: avoiding conflicts in transactional memories. In: PODC, pp. 7–16 (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fedorova, A., Felber, P., Hendler, D., Lawall, J., Maldonado, W., Marlier, P., Muller, G., Suissa, A.: Scheduling support for transactional memory contention management. In: PPoPP (to appear, 2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Felber, P., Riegel, T., Fetzer, C.: Dynamic performance tuning of word-based software transactional memory. In: PPOPP, pp. 237–246 (February 2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fraser, K.: Practical lock-freedom. Ph. D. dissertation, UCAM-CL-TR-579, Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guerraoui, R., Herlihy, M., Pochon, B.: Polymorphic contention management. In: Fraigniaud, P. (ed.) DISC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3724, pp. 303–323. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guerraoui, R., Herlihy, M., Pochon, B.: Towards a theory of transactional contention managers. In: PODC, pp. 316–317 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guerraoui, R., Kapalka, M., Vitek, J.: Stmbench7: a benchmark for software transactional memory. SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 41(3), 315–324 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harris, T., Fraser, K.: Language support for lightweight transactions. In: OOPSLA, pp. 388–402 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Herlihy, M.: SXM software transactional memory package for C#, http://www.cs.brown.edu/~mph
  13. 13.
    Herlihy, M., Luchangco, V., Moir, M., Scherer III, W.N.: Software transactional memory for dynamic-sized data structures. In: PODC, pp. 92–101 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Herlihy, M., Moss, J.E.B.: Transactional memory: Architectural support for lock-free data structures. In: ISCA, pp. 289–300 (1993)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marathe, V.J., Scherer III, W.N., Scott, M.L.: Adaptive software transactional memory. In: Fraigniaud, P. (ed.) DISC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3724, pp. 354–368. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marathe, V.J., Spear, M.F., Heriot, C., Acharya, A., Eisenstat, D., Scherer, I.W.N., Scott, M.L.: Lowering the overhead of nonblocking software transactional memory. In: Workshop on Languages, Compilers, and Hardware Support for Transactional Computing (TRANSACT 2006) (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moore, K.E., Bobba, J., Moravan, M.J., Hill, M.D., Wood, D.A.: Logtm: Log-based transactional memory. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on High Performance Computer Architecture, pp. 254–265 (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saha, B., Adl-Tabatabai, A.-R., Hudson, R.L., Minh, C.C., Hertzberg, B.: Mcrt-stm: a high performance software transactional memory system for a multi-core runtime. In: PPOPP, pp. 187–197 (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Scott, M.L., Scherer III, W.N.: Advanced contention management for dynamic software transactional memory. In: PODC, pp. 240–248 (2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shavit, N., Touitou, D.: Software transactional memory. Distributed Computing 10(2), 99–116 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Spear, M.F., Silverman, M., Dalessandro, L., Michael, M.M., Scott, M.L.: Implementing and exploiting inevitability in software transactional memory. In: ICPP, pp. 59–66 (2008)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vossen, G., Weikum, G.: Transactional information systems. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (2001)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yoo, R.M., Lee, H.-H.S.: Adaptive transaction scheduling for transactional memory systems. In: SPAA, pp. 169–178 (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomer Heber
    • 1
  • Danny Hendler
    • 1
  • Adi Suissa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceBen-Gurion University of the NegevBe’er ShevaIsrael

Personalised recommendations