Applications of Sr Isotopes in Archaeology

  • N. M. SlovakEmail author
  • A. Paytan
Part of the Advances in Isotope Geochemistry book series (ADISOTOPE)


The inclusion of radiogenic strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analysis in archaeological and bioarchaeological research has resulted in the creation of new data by which to evaluate models of migration, culture change, colonization, trade, and exchange. Overwhelmingly, archaeologists have used radiogenic strontium isotope signatures in human enamel and bone apatite to reconstruct ancient mobility patterns and to distinguish between individuals of local and non-local origins at archaeological sites. The method also has been employed to establish the provenience of artifacts, ancient building materials, and foodstuffs as well as to track the origins and migratory patterns of prehistoric animals. The present chapter provides an introduction to the fundamental principles, approaches, applications, and future directions of radiogenic strontium isotope analysis in archaeology.


Residential Mobility Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Tooth Enamel Strontium Isotope Enamel Sample 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful to Dr. Mark Baskaran (Wayne State University) for inviting us to contribute to this volume. We also thank the various grant agencies, especially the National Science Foundation, for their continued financial support of isotopic studies in archaeology. Thanks as well to Elsevier for granting permission to reprint various figures from the Journal of Archaeological Science free of charge. We appreciate Kelly Knudson and colleagues’ willingness to share their then unpublished δ88Sr/86Sr data and methodology with us for inclusion in this chapter. Finally, we thank two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments and suggestions.


  1. Andrushko VA, Buzon MR, Simonetti A et al (2009) Strontium isotope evidence for prehistoric migration at Chokepukio, valley of Cuzco, Peru. Lat Am Antiq 20:57–75Google Scholar
  2. Bailey TR, McArthur JM, Prince H et al (2000) Dissolution methods for strontium isotope stratigraphy: whole rock analysis. Chem Geol 167:313–319Google Scholar
  3. Balasse M, Ambrose SH, Smith A et al (2002) The seasonal mobility model for prehistoric herders in the South-western cape of South Africa assessed by isotopic analysis of sheep tooth enamel. J Archaeol Sci 29:917–932Google Scholar
  4. Beard BL, Johnson CM (2000) Strontium isotope compositions of skeletal material can determine the birth place and geographic mobility of animals and humans. J Forensic Sci 45(5):1049–1061Google Scholar
  5. Benson LV (2010) Who provided maize to Chaco Canyon after the mid-12th-century drought? J Archaeol Sci 37:621–629Google Scholar
  6. Benson LV, Hattori EM, Taylor HE et al (2006) Isotope sourcing of prehistoric willow and tule textiles recovered from western great basin rock shelters and caves: proof of concept. J Archaeol Sci 33:1588–1599Google Scholar
  7. Benson LV, Stein JR, Taylor HE (2009) Possible sources of archaeological maize found in Chaco Canyon and Aztec Ruin. New Mexico J Archaeol Sci 36:387–407Google Scholar
  8. Bentley RA (2006) Strontium isotopes from the earth to the archaeological skeleton: a review. J Archaeol Meth Theor 13:135–187Google Scholar
  9. Bentley RA, Knipper C (2005) Geographical patterns in biologically available strontium, carbon and oxygen isotope signatures in prehistoric SW Germany. Archaeometry 47:629–644Google Scholar
  10. Bentley RA, Krause R, Price TD et al (2003) Human mobility at the early neolithic settlement of Vaihingen, Germany: evidence from strontium isotope analysis. Archaeometry 45:471–486Google Scholar
  11. Bentley RA, Price TD, Stephan E (2004) Determining the “local” 87Sr/86Sr range for archaeological skeletons: a case study from neolithic Europe. J Archaeol Sci 31:365–375Google Scholar
  12. Billings GK, Adams JAS (1964) The analysis of geological materials by atomic absorption spectrometry. At Absorpt News 23:1–7Google Scholar
  13. Birck JL (1986) Precision K–Rb–Sr isotopic analysis – application to Rb–Sr chronology. Chem Geol 56:73–83Google Scholar
  14. Brilli M, Cavazzini G, Turi B (2005) New data of 87Sr/86Sr ratio in classical marble: an initial database for marble provenance determination. J Archaeol Sci 32:1543–1551Google Scholar
  15. Budd P, Montgomery M, Barreiro B et al (2000) Differential digenesis of strontium in archaeological human dental tissues. Appl Geochem 15:687–694Google Scholar
  16. Buikstra JE, Frankenberg S, Lambert JB et al (1989) Multiple elements: multiple expectations. In: Price TD (ed) The chemistry of prehistoric bone. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  17. Buikstra JE, Price TD, Wright LE et al (2004) Tombs from the Copan acropolis: a life-history approach. In: Bell EE, Canuto MA, Sharer RJ (eds) Understanding early classic Copan. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  18. Burton J, Wright L (1995) Nonlinearity in the relationship between bone Sr/Ca and diet: parleodietary implications. Am J Phys Anthropol 96:273–282Google Scholar
  19. Buzon MR, Simonetti A, Creaser RA (2007) Migration in the Nile valley during the new kingdom period: a preliminary strontium isotope study. J Archaeol Sci 9:1391–1401Google Scholar
  20. Capo RC, Stewart BW, Chadwick OA (1998) Strontium isotopes as tracers of ecosystems processes: theory and methods. Geoderma 82:197–225Google Scholar
  21. Chamberlain CP, Blum JD, Holmes RT et al (1997) The use of isotope tracers for identifying populations of migratory birds. Oecologia 109:132–141Google Scholar
  22. Christensen JN, Halliday AN, Lee DC et al (1995) In situ Sr isotope analysis by laser ablation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 136:79–85Google Scholar
  23. Comar CL, Russell RS, Wasserman RH (1957) Strontium-calcium movement from soil to man. Science 126:485–492Google Scholar
  24. Conlee CA, Buzon MR, Gutierrez AN et al (2009) Identifying foreigners versus locals in a burial population from Nasca, Peru: an investigation using strontium isotope analysis. J Archaeol Sci 36:2755–2764Google Scholar
  25. Copeland SR, Sponheimer M, Roux PJl et al (2008) Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of tooth enamel: a comparison of solution and laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 22:3187–3194Google Scholar
  26. Copeland SR, Sponheimer M, Lee-Thorp JA et al (2010) Strontium isotope ratios in fossil teeth from South Africa: assessing laser ablation MC-ICP-MS analysis and the extent of diagenesis. J Archaeol Sci 37:1437–1446Google Scholar
  27. D’Altroy TN (2005) Remaking the social landscape: Colonization in the Inka empire. In: Stein GJ (ed) The archaeology of colonial encounters. School of American Research Press, Santa FeGoogle Scholar
  28. De Souza GF, Reynolds BC, Bourdon B (2007) Evidence for stable strontium isotope fractionation during chemical weathering. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:A220Google Scholar
  29. DeNiro MJ, Epstein S (1978) Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:495–506Google Scholar
  30. DeNiro MJ, Epstein S (1981) Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 45:341–351Google Scholar
  31. Dolphin AE, Goodman AH, Amarasiriwardena DD (2005) Variations in elemental intensities among teeth and between pre- and postnatal regions of enamel. Am J Phys Anthropol 128:878–888Google Scholar
  32. Dupras TL, Schwarcz HP (2001) Strangers in a strange land: stable isotope evidence for human migration in the Dakhleh oasis, Egypt. J Archaeol Sci 28:1199–1208Google Scholar
  33. Ericson JE (1985) Strontium isotope characterization in the study of prehistoric human ecology. J Hum Evol 14:503–514Google Scholar
  34. Eriksen B (1986) Normal and pathological remodeling of human trabecular bone: three dimensional reconstruction of the remodeling sequence in normal and in metabolic bone disease. Endocr Rev 7:379Google Scholar
  35. Ezzo JA, Price TD (2002) Migration, regional reorganization, and spatial group composition at Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona. J Archaeol Sci 29:499–520Google Scholar
  36. Ezzo J, Johnson CM, Price TD (1997) Analytical perspectives on prehistoric migration: a case study from east-central Arizona. J Archaeol Sci 24:447–466Google Scholar
  37. Faure G (1977) Principles of isotope geology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Faure G, Mensing TM (2005) Isotopes: principles and applications. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  39. Feranec R, Hadly E, Paytan A (2007) Determining landscape use of Holocene mammals using strontium isotopes. Oecologia 153(4):943–950Google Scholar
  40. Fietzke J, Eisenhauer A (2006) Determination of temperature-dependent stable strontium isotope (88Sr/86 Sr) fractionation via bracketing standard MC-ICP-MS. Geochem Geophys Geosyst. doi: 10.1029/2006GC001243 Google Scholar
  41. Fortunato G, Mumic K, Wunderli S et al (2004) Application of strontium isotope abundance ratios measured by MC-ICP-MS for food authentication. J Anal At Spectrom 19:227–234Google Scholar
  42. Freestone IC, Leslie KA, Thirlwall M et al (2003) Strontium isotopes in the investigation of early glass production: byzantine and early Islamic glass from the near east. Archaeometry 45:19–32Google Scholar
  43. Frei KM, Frei R, Mannering U et al (2009) Provenance of ancient textiles – a pilot study evaluating the strontium isotope system in wool. Archaeometry 51:252–276Google Scholar
  44. Fricke HC, O’Neil JR (1996) Inter- and intra-tooth variation in the oxygen isotope composition of mammalian tooth enamel phosphate: implications for palaeoclimatological and palaeobiological research. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 126:91–99Google Scholar
  45. Gale NH, Einfalt HC, Hubberten HW et al (1988) The sources of Mycenaean gypsum. J Archaeol Sci 15:57–72Google Scholar
  46. García-Ruiz S, Moldovan M, García Alonso JI (2008) Measurement of strontium isotope ratios by MC-ICP-MS after on-line Rb–Sr ion chromatography separation. J Anal At Spectrom 23:84–93Google Scholar
  47. Garn SM, Lewis AB, Vicinus JH (1962) Third molar agenesis and reduction in the number of other teeth. J Dent Res 46:963–972Google Scholar
  48. Garvie-Lok SJ, Varney TL, Katzenberg MA (2004) Preparation of bone carbonate for stable isotope analysis: the effects of treatment time and acid concentration. J Archaeol Sci 31:763–776Google Scholar
  49. Gat JR (1980) The isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in precipitation. In: Fritz P, Fontes JC (eds) Handbook of environmental isotope geochemistry. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  50. Grupe G, Price TD, Schröter P et al (1997) Mobility of bell beaker people revealed by strontium isotope ratios of tooth and bone: a study of southern Bavarian skeletal remains. Appl Geochem 12:517–525Google Scholar
  51. Halicz L, Segal I, Fruchter N et al (2008) Strontium stable isotopes fractionate in the soil environments? Earth Planet Sci Lett 272:406–411Google Scholar
  52. Hart SR, Brooks C (1974) Clinopyroxene-matrix partitioning of K, Rb, Cs, Sr and Ba. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 38:1799–1806Google Scholar
  53. Hart SR, Erlank AJ, Kable EJD (1974) Sea floor basalt alteration: some chemical and Sr isotopic effects. Contr Miner Petrol 44:219–230Google Scholar
  54. Hedman KM, Curry BB, Johnson TM et al (2009) Variation in strontium isotope ratios of archaeological fauna in the Midwestern United States: a preliminary study. J Archaeol Sci 36:64–73Google Scholar
  55. Hein JR, Yeh HW, Gunn SH et al (1993) Two major Cenozoic episodes of phosphogenesis recorded in equatorial Pacific seamount deposits. Paleoceanography 8:293–311Google Scholar
  56. Henderson J, Evans JA, Sloane HJ et al (2005) The use of oxygen, strontium and lead isotopes to provenance ancient glasses in the middle east. J Archaeol Sci 32:665–673Google Scholar
  57. Hill PA (1998) Bone remodeling. Br J Orthop 25:101–107Google Scholar
  58. Hillson S (1996) Dental anthropology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  59. Hillson S (2005) Teeth. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  60. Hodell DA, Quinn RL, Brenner M et al (2004) Spatial variation of strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) in the Maya region: a tool for tracking ancient human migration. J Archaeol Sci 31:585–601Google Scholar
  61. Hoogewerff J, Papesch W, Kralik M et al (2001) The last domicile of the iceman from Hauslabjoch: a geochemical approach using Sr, C and O isotopes and trace element signatures. J Archaeol Sci 28:983–989Google Scholar
  62. Hoppe KA (2004) Late pleistocene mammoth herd structure, migration patterns, and Clovis hunting strategies inferred from isotopic analyses of multiple death assemblages. Paleobiology 30:129–145Google Scholar
  63. Hoppe KA, Koch PL, Carlson RW et al (1999) Tracking mammoths and mastodons: reconstruction of migratory behavior using strontium isotope ratios. Geology 27:439–442Google Scholar
  64. Hoppe KA, Koch PL, Furutani TT (2003) Assessing the preservation of biogenic strontium in fossil bones and tooth enamel. Int J Osteoarchaeol 13:20–28Google Scholar
  65. Horstwood MSA, Evans JA, Montgomery J (2008) Determination of Sr isotopes in calcium phosphates using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their application to archaeological tooth enamel. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 72:5659–5674Google Scholar
  66. Horwitz EP, Dietz ML, Fischer DE (1991) Separation and preconcentration of strontium from biological, environmental, and nuclear waste samples by extraction chromatography using a crown ether. Anal Chem 63:522–525Google Scholar
  67. Horwitz EP, Chiarizia R, Dietz ML (1992) A novel strontium-selective extraction chromatographic resin. Solvent Extr Ion Exchange 10:313–336Google Scholar
  68. Hurst RW, Davis TE (1981) Strontium isotopes as tracers of airborne fly ash from coal-fired power plants. Environ Geol 3:363–367Google Scholar
  69. Jones S (1997) The archaeology of ethnicity: constructing identities in the past and present. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  70. Jowsey J (1961) Age changes in human bone. Clin Orthop 17:210–218Google Scholar
  71. Jowsey J, Kelley PJ, Riggs DL et al (1965) Quantitative microradiographic studies of normal and osteoporotic bone. J Jt Bone Surg 47a:785–806Google Scholar
  72. Katzenberg MA, Saunders SR (eds) (2008) Biological anthropology of the human skeleton, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  73. Knudson KJ (2008) Tiwanaku influence in the south central Andes: strontium isotope analysis and Middle Horizon migration. Lat Am Antiq 19:3–24Google Scholar
  74. Knudson KJ, Price TD (2007) Utility of multiple chemical techniques in archaeological residence mobility studies: case studies from Tiwanaku- and Chiribaya-affiliated sites in the Andes. Am J Phys Anthropol 132:25–39Google Scholar
  75. Knudson KJ, Torres-Rouff C (2009) Investigating cultural heterogeneity in San Pedro de Atacama, northern Chile, through biogeochemistry and bioarchaeology. Am J Phys Anthropol 138:473–485Google Scholar
  76. Knudson KJ, Price TD, Buikstra JE et al (2004) The use of strontium isotope analysis to investigate Tiwanaku migration and mortuary ritual in Bolivia and Peru. Archaeometry 46:5–18Google Scholar
  77. Knudson KJ, Williams SR, Osborn R et al (2009) The geographic origins of Nasca trophy heads using strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotope data. J Anthropol Archaeol 28:244–257Google Scholar
  78. Knudson KJ, Williams HM, Buikstra JE et al (2010) Introducing δ88Sr/86Sr analysis in archaeology: a demonstration of the utility of strontium isotope fractionation in paleodietary studies. J Archaeol Sci 39(9):2352–2364Google Scholar
  79. Koch PL, Fisher D, Dettman D (1989) Oxygen isotope variation in the tusks of extinct proboscideans: a measure of season of death and seasonality. Geology 17:515–519Google Scholar
  80. Koch PL, Halliday AN, Walter LM et al (1992) Sr isotopic composition of hydroxyapatite from recent and fossil salmon: the record of lifetime migration and diagenesis. Earth Planet Sci Lett 108:277–287Google Scholar
  81. Koch PL, Heisinger J, Moss C et al (1995) Isotopic tracking of change in diet and habitat use in African elephants. Science 267:1340–1343Google Scholar
  82. Koch PL, Tuross N, Fogel M (1997) The effects of sample treatment and diagenesis on the isotopic integrity of carbonate in biogenic hydroxylapatite. J Archaeol Sci 24:417–429Google Scholar
  83. Kohn MJ, Schoeninger MJ, Barker WW (1999) Altered states: effects of diagenesis on fossil tooth chemistry. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:2737–2747Google Scholar
  84. Kyle JH (1986) Effect of post-burial contamination on the concentrations of major and minor elements in human bones and teeth – the implications for paleodietary research. J Archaeol Sci 13:403–416Google Scholar
  85. Lambert JB, Simpson SV, Szpunar CB et al (1982) A comparative study of the chemical analysis of ribs and femurs in woodland populations. Am J Phys Anthropol 59:289–294Google Scholar
  86. Larsen CS (1997) Bioarchaeology: interpreting behavior from the human skeleton. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  87. Longinelli A (1984) Oxygen isotopes in mammal bone phosphate: a new tool for paleohydrological and paleoclimatological research? Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:385–390Google Scholar
  88. McArthur JM, Thirlwall MF, Gale AS et al (1993) Strontium isotope stratigraphy for the Late Cretaceous: a new curve, based on the English chalk. In: Hailwood EA, Kidd RB (eds) High resolution stratigraphy. Geological Society Special Publication 70, pp 195–209Google Scholar
  89. Montanez IP, Banner JL, Osleger DA et al (1996) Integrated Sr isotope variations and sea-level history of Middle to Upper Cambrian platform carbonates: implications for the evolution of Cambrian seawater 87Sr/86Sr. Geologia 24:917–920Google Scholar
  90. Montgomery J, Evans JA (2006) Immigrants on the Isle of Lewis – combining traditional funerary and modern isotope evidence to investigate social differentiation, migration and dietary change in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. In: Gowland R, Knusel C (eds) The social archaeology of funerary remains. Oxbow Books, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  91. Montgomery J, Evans JA, Neighbour T (2003) Sr isotope evidence for population movement within the Hebridean Norse community of NW Scotland. J Geol Soc Lond 160:649–653Google Scholar
  92. Montgomery J, Evans JA, Powlesland D et al (2005) Continuity or colonization in Anglo-Saxon England? Isotope evidence for mobility, subsistence practice and status at West Heslerton. Am J Phys Anthropol 126:123–138Google Scholar
  93. Mulhern DM, Van Gerven DP (1997) Patterns of femoral bone remodeling dynamics in a Medieval Nubian population. Am J Phys Anthropol 104:133–146Google Scholar
  94. Mulhern DM, Van Gerven DP (2000) Rib remodeling dynamics in a skeletal population from Kulubnarti, Nubia. Am J Phys Anthropol 111:519–530Google Scholar
  95. Müller W, Fricke H, Halliday AN et al (2003) Origin and migration of the alpine iceman. Science 203:862–866Google Scholar
  96. Nehlich O, Montgomery J, Evans J et al (2009) Mobility or migration: a case study from the Neolithic settlement of Nieder-Mörlen (Hessen, Germany). J Archaeol Sci 36:1791–1799Google Scholar
  97. Nelson BK, DeNiro MJ, Schoeninger MJ et al (1986) Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen concentration and isotopic composition of bone. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 50:1941–1949Google Scholar
  98. Nielsen-Marsh CM, Hedges REM (2000a) Patterns of diagenesis in bone I: the effects of site environments. J Archaeol Sci 27:1139–1150Google Scholar
  99. Nielsen-Marsh CM, Hedges REM (2000b) Patterns of diagenesis in bone II: effects of acetic acid treatment of the removal of diagenetic CO32. J Archaeol Sci 27:1151–1159Google Scholar
  100. Nowell GM, Horstwood MSA (2009) Comments on Richards et al., Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 2008 “strontium isotope evidence of Neanderthal mobility at the site of Lakonis, Greece using laser-ablation PIMMS”. J Archaeol Sci 36:1334–1341Google Scholar
  101. Oslick JS, Miller KG, Feigenson MD (1994) Oligocene-Miocene strontium isotopes: stratigraphic revisions and correlations to an inferred glacioeustatic record. Paleoceanography 9:427–443Google Scholar
  102. Parfitt AM (1983) The physiologic and clinical significance of bone histomorphometric data. In: Recker RR (ed) Bone histomorphometry: techniques and interpretation. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  103. Pin C, Bassin C (1992) Evaluation of the strontium-specific extraction chromatography method for isotopic analysis in geological materials. Anal Chim Acta 269:249–255Google Scholar
  104. Porder S, Paytan A, Hadly E (2003) Mapping the origin of faunal assemblages using strontium isotopes. Paleobiology 29(2):197–204Google Scholar
  105. Poszwa A, Ferry B, Dambrine E et al (2004) Variations of bioavailable Sr concentration and 87Sr/86Sr ratio in boreal forest ecosystems: role of biocycling, mineral weathering and depth of root uptake. Biogeochemistry 67:1–20Google Scholar
  106. Price TD, Blitz J, Burton J et al (1992) Diagenesis in prehistoric bone: problems and solutions. J Archaeol Sci 19:513–529Google Scholar
  107. Price TD, Johnson CM, Ezzo JA et al (1994) Residential mobility in the prehistoric Southwest United States: a preliminary study using strontium isotope analysis. J Archaeol Sci 21:315–330Google Scholar
  108. Price TD, Grupe G, Schröter P (1998) Migration in the bell beaker period of central Europe. Antiquity 72:405–411Google Scholar
  109. Price TD, Manzanilla L, Middleton WD (2000) Immigration and the ancient city of Teotihuacan in Mexico: a study using strontium isotope ratios in human bone and teeth. J Archaeol Sci 27:903–913Google Scholar
  110. Price TD, Burton JH, Bentley RA (2002) The characterization of biologically available strontium isotope ratios for the study of prehistoric migration. Archaeometry 44:117–135Google Scholar
  111. Price TD, Knipper C, Grupe G et al (2004) Strontium isotopes and prehistoric migration: the Bell Beaker Period in central Europe. Eur J Archaeol 7:9–40Google Scholar
  112. Price TD, Tiesler V, Burton JH (2006a) Early African diaspora in colonial Campeche, Mexico: strontium isotopic evidence. Am J Phys Anthropol 130:485–490Google Scholar
  113. Price TD, Wahl J, Bentley RA (2006b) Isotopic evidence for mobility and group organization among Neolithic farmers at the Talheim, Germany, 5000 BC. Eur J Archaeol 9(2):259–284Google Scholar
  114. Quade J, Cerling TE, Barry JC et al (1992) A 16ma record of paleodiet using carbon and oxygen isotopes in fossil teeth from Pakistan. Chem Geol 94:183–192Google Scholar
  115. Reynolds AC, Betancourt JL, Quade J et al (2005) 87Sr/86Sr sourcing of ponderosa pine used in Anasazi great house construction at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. J Archaeol Sci 32:1061–1075Google Scholar
  116. Richards M, Harvati K, Grimes V et al (2008) Strontium isotope evidence of Neanderthal mobility at the site of Lakonis, Greece using laser-ablation PIMMS. J Archaeol Sci 35:1251–1256Google Scholar
  117. Richards M, Grimes V, Smith C et al (2009) Response to Nowell and Horstwood. J Archaeol Sci 36:1657–1658Google Scholar
  118. Ruggeberg A, Fietzke J, Liebetrau V et al (2008) Stable strontium isotopes (δ88Sr/86Sr) in cold-water corals – a new proxy for reconstruction of intermediate ocean water temperatures. Earth Planet Sci Lett 269:570–575Google Scholar
  119. Sandford MK (1992) A reconsideration of trace element analysis in prehistoric bone. In: Saunders SR, Katzenberg MA (eds) Skeletal biology and past peoples: research methods. Wiley-Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  120. Schoeninger MJ (1995) Stable isotope studies in human evolution. Evol Anthropol 4:83–98Google Scholar
  121. Schoeninger MJ, DeNiro MJ (1984) Nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of bone collagen from marine and terrestrial animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:625–639Google Scholar
  122. Schour I, Massler M (1940) Studies in tooth development: the growth pattern of human teeth. J Am Dent Assoc 27(1778–1792):1918–1931Google Scholar
  123. Schwarcz HP, Schoeninger MJ (2011) Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen as tracers for paleo-diet reconstruction. In: Baskaran M (ed) Handbook of environmental isotope geochemistry. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  124. Schweissing M, Grupe G (2003) Stable strontium isotopes in human teeth and bone: a key to migration events of the late Roman period in Bavaria. J Archaeol Sci 30:1373–1383Google Scholar
  125. Sealy JC, van der Merwe NJ, Sillen A et al (1991) 87Sr/86Sr as a dietary indicator in modern and archaeological bone. J Archaeol Sci 18:399–416Google Scholar
  126. Shemesh A (1990) Crystallinity and diagenesis of sedimentary apatites. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:2433–2438Google Scholar
  127. Sillen A (1981) Strontium and diet at Hayonim Cave. Am J Phys Anthropol 56:131–138Google Scholar
  128. Sillen A (1986) Biogenic and diagenic Sr/Ca in plio-pleistocene fossils of the Omo Shungura formation. Paleobiology 12:311–323Google Scholar
  129. Sillen A (1989) Diagenesis of the inorganic phase of cortical bone. In: Price TD (ed) The chemistry of prehistoric bone. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  130. Sillen A, Sealy JC (1995) Diagenesis of strontium in fossil bone: a reconsideration of Nelson et al. (1986). J Archaeol Sci 22:313–320Google Scholar
  131. Sillen A, Hall G, Armstrong R (1995) Strontium calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) and strontium isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) of Australopithecus robustus and Homo sp. from Swartkrans. J Hum Evol 28:277–285Google Scholar
  132. Sillen A, Hall G, Richardson S et al (1998) 87Sr/86Sr ratios in modern and fossil food-webs of the Sterkfontein valley: implications for early hominid habitat preference. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 62:2463–2478Google Scholar
  133. Simonetti A, Buzon MR, Creaser RA (2008) In-situ elemental and Sr isotope investigation of human tooth enamel by laser ablation-(MC)-ICP-MS: successes and pitfalls. Archaeometry 50:371–385Google Scholar
  134. Slovak NM (2007) Examining imperial influence on Peru’s central coast: isotopic and cultural analyses of Middle Horizon burials at Ancón. PhD Dissertation Thesis, Stanford University, StanfordGoogle Scholar
  135. Slovak NM, Paytan A (2009) Fisherfolk and farmers: carbon and nitrogen isotope evidence from Middle Horizon Ancón, Peru. Int J Osteoarchaeol. doi: 10.1002/oa.1128 Google Scholar
  136. Slovak NM, Paytan A, Wiegand BA (2009) Reconstructing middle horizon mobility patterns on the coast of Peru through strontium isotope analysis. J Archaeol Sci 36:157–165Google Scholar
  137. Smith BH (1991) Standards of human tooth formation and dental age assessment. In: Kelley MA, Larsen CS (eds) Advances in dental anthropology. Wiley-Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  138. Stuart-Williams HLQ, Schwarcz HP (1997) Oxygen isotopic determination of climatic variation using phosphate from beaver bone, tooth enamel and dentine. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:2539–2550Google Scholar
  139. Tetelbaum SL (2000) Bone resorption by osteoclasts. Science 289:1504Google Scholar
  140. Thornton EK, Defrance SD, Krigbaum J et al (2010) Isotopic evidence for Middle Horizon to16th century camelid herding in the Osmore valley, Peru. Int J Osteoarchaeol. doi: 10.1002/oa.1157 Google Scholar
  141. Towers J, Montgomery J, Evans J et al (2009) An investigation of the origins of cattle and aurochs deposited in the early Bronze Age barrows at Gayhurst and Irthlingborough. J Archaeol Sci 37:508–515Google Scholar
  142. Trickett MA, Budd P, Montomery J et al (2003) An assessment of solubility profiling as a decontamination procedure for the 87Sr/86Sr analysis of archaeological human tissue. Appl Geochem 18:653–658Google Scholar
  143. Tung TA, Knudson KJ (2008) Social identities and geographical origins of Wari trophy heads from Conchopata, Peru. Curr Anthropol 49:915–925Google Scholar
  144. Turner BL, Kamenov GD, Kingston JD et al (2009) Insights into immigration and social class at Machu Picchu, Peru based on oxygen, strontium, and lead isotopic analysis. J Archaeol Sci 36:317–332Google Scholar
  145. van der Merwe NJ, Lee-Thorp JA, Thackeray JF et al (1990) Source-area determination of elephant ivory by isotopic analysis. Nature 346:744–746Google Scholar
  146. Vanhaecke F, De Wannemacker G, Moens L et al (1999) The determination of strontium isotope ratios by means of quadrupole-based ICP-mass spectrometry: a geochronological case study. J Anal At Spectrom 14:1691–1696Google Scholar
  147. Vanhaeren M, d’Errico F, Billy I et al (2004) Tracing the source of upper palaeolithic shell beads by strontium isotope dating. J Archaeol Sci 31:1481–1488Google Scholar
  148. Veizer J (1989) Strontium isotopes in seawater through time. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 1:141–167Google Scholar
  149. Vroon PZ, van der Wagt B, Koornneef JM et al (2008) Problems in obtaining precise and accurate Sr isotope analysis from geological materials using laser ablation MC-ICPMS. Anal Bioanal Chem 390:465–476Google Scholar
  150. Waight T, Baker J, Peate D (2002) Sr isotope ratio measurements by doublefocusing MC-ICP-MS: techniques, observations and pitfalls. Int J Mass Spectrom 221:229–244Google Scholar
  151. Wakabayashi T, Ohno T, Fukushi Y et al (2007) Simultaneous determination of mass-dependent isotopic fractionation and radiogenic isotope variation of Sr in geochemical samples. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:A1079Google Scholar
  152. Wang Y, Cerling TE (1994) A model of fossil tooth and bone diagenesis: implications for paleodiet reconstruction from stable isotopes. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 107:281–289Google Scholar
  153. Weiner S, Bar-Yosef O (1990) States of preservation of bones from prehistoric sites in the Near East: a survey. J Archaeol Sci 17:187–196Google Scholar
  154. White CD, Spence MW, Stuart-Williams HLQ et al (1998) Oxygen isotopes and the identification of geographical origins: the valley of Oaxaca versus the valley of Mexico. J Archaeol Sci 25:643–655Google Scholar
  155. Wright LE (2005) Identifying immigrants to Tikal, Guatemala: defining local variability in strontium isotope ratios of human tooth enamel. J Archaeol Sci 32:555–566Google Scholar
  156. Wright LE, Schwarcz HP (1996) Infrared and isotopic evidence for diagenesis of bone apatite at Dos Pilas, Guatemala: palaeodietary implications. J Archaeol Sci 23:933–944Google Scholar
  157. Yurtsever Y, Gat JR (1981) Atmospheric waters. In: Gat JR, Gonflantini R (eds) Stable isotope hydrology: deuterium and oxygen-18 in the water cycle. Technical report series no. 210. International Atomic Energy Agency, ViennaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Behavioral SciencesSanta Rosa Junior CollegeSanta RosaUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA

Personalised recommendations