Applications of Stable Isotopes in Hydrocarbon Exploration and Environmental Forensics

  • R. Paul PhilpEmail author
  • Guillermo Lo Monaco
Part of the Advances in Isotope Geochemistry book series (ADISOTOPE)


Hydrocarbon exploration and environmental forensics may appear to be two unrelated topics but in many ways are closely related. Techniques that have been developed and utilized in the hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation industry for many decades have found their way to the forefront of environmental forensics area over the past decade. Whereas hydrocarbon exploration is geared towards finding new resources, environmental forensics is directed to looking at what happens to those resources as they, or products derived from them, are spilled into the environment. In the former one uses sophisticated techniques to correlate oils, or gases, with their suspected sources and in the later, one is trying to correlate the spilled product with its suspected source. The source may be a tanker, pipeline, underground storage tank or something similar. The most widely used techniques in both of these areas for many years have been gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) but recent years have seen an exponential increase in the utilization of stable isotopes. There is nothing new about applying stable isotopes to exploration problems but the majority of the older applications utilized bulk isotope numbers for crude oil correlation studies. The availability of the combined gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometer systems (GCIRMS) over the past 10–20 years, has played an important role in the increased number of applications where stable isotopes have to be used to investigate problems in both of these areas.

In this chapter, we examine developments and applications in hydrocarbon exploration and environmental forensics. In addition areas that are currently just starting to emerge particularly in the area of environmental forensics will also be discussed.


Isotopic Composition Stable Isotope Source Rock Carbon Isotope Isotope Fractionation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aizenshtat Z, Baedecker MJ, Kaplan IR (1973) Distribution and diagenesis of organic compounds in JOIDES sediment from Gulf of Mexico and Western Atlantic. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 37:1881–1898Google Scholar
  2. Alexander R, Kagi RI, Larcher AV (1982) Clay catalysis of aromatic hydrogen-exchange reactions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 46:219–222Google Scholar
  3. Andrusevich VE, Engel MH, Zumberge JE, Brothers LA (1998) Secular, episodic changes in stable carbon isotope composition of crude oils. Chem Geol 152:59–72Google Scholar
  4. Beneteau KM, Aravena R, Frape SK (1999) Isotopic characterization of chlorinated solvents-laboratory and field results. Org Geochem 30(8):739–753Google Scholar
  5. Bernard BB, Brooks JM, Sackett WM (1976) Natural gas seepage in the Gulf of Mexico. Earth Planet Sci Lett 31:48–54Google Scholar
  6. Berner U, Faber E (1996) Empirical carbon isotope/maturity relationships for gases from algal kerogens and terrigenous organic matter, based on dry, open-system pyrolysis. Org Geochem 24:947–955Google Scholar
  7. Berner U, Faber E, Scheeder G, Panten D (1995) Primary cracking of algal and landplant kerogens; kinetic models of isotope variations in methane, ethane and propane; processes of natural gas formation. Chem Geol 126:233–245Google Scholar
  8. Bigeleisen J (1965) Chemistry of isotopes. Science 147:463–471Google Scholar
  9. Bjorøy M, Hall K, Gillyon P, Jumeau J (1992) Carbon isotope variations in n-alkanes and isoprenoids in whole oils. Chem Geol 93:13–20Google Scholar
  10. Bloom Y, Aravena R, Hunkeler D, Edwards E, Frape SK (2000) Carbon isotope fractionation during microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride: implications for assessment of natural attenuation. Environ Sci Technol 34(13):2768–2772Google Scholar
  11. Boreham CJ, Dowling LM, Murray AP (1995) Biodegradation and maturity influences on n-alkane isotopic profiles in terrigenous sequences. In: Abstracts of 17th International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry, San Sebastian, Spain, pp 539–541Google Scholar
  12. Bradley PM, Landmeyer JE, Chapelle FH (1999) Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol by stream-bed sediment micro-organisms. Environ Sci Technol 33(11):1877–1879Google Scholar
  13. Bray EE, Evans ED (1964) Distribution of n-paraffins as a clue to recognition of source beds. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 22:2–15Google Scholar
  14. Brooks PW, Eglinton G, Gaskell SJ, Maxwell JR, McHugh DJ, Philp RP (1976) Lipids of recent sediments part I: straight-chain hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids of some temperate lacustrine and sub-tropical lagoonal/tidal flat sediments. Chem Geol 18:21–38Google Scholar
  15. Brooks PW, Eglinton G, Gaskell SJ, Maxwell JR, McHugh DJ, Philp RP (1977) Lipids of recent sediments. Part II: branched and cyclic alkanes and alkanoic acids of some temperate lacustrine and subtropical lagoonal/tidal flat sediments. Chem Geol 20:189–204Google Scholar
  16. Brown FS, Baedecker MJ, Nissenbaum A, Kaplan IA (1972) Early diagenesis in a reducing fjord, Saanch Inlet, British Columbia–III. Changes in organic constituents of sediment. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 36:1185–1203Google Scholar
  17. Brungard KL, Munakata-Marr J, Johnson CA, Mandernack KW (2003) Stable carbon isotope fractionation of trans 1,2-dichloroethylene during co-metabolic degradation by methanotrophic bacteria. Chem Geol 195:59–67Google Scholar
  18. Burgoyne TW, Hayes JM (1998) Quantitative production of H2 by pyrolysis of gas chromatographic effluents. Anal Chem 70:5136–5141Google Scholar
  19. Calvin M (1969) Chemical evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, p 278Google Scholar
  20. Chartrand MMG, Morrill PL, Lacrampe-Couloume G, Sherwood Lollar B (2005) Stable isotope evidence for biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes at a fractured bedrock site. Environ Sci Technol 39(13):4848–4856Google Scholar
  21. Chu K-H, Mahendra S, Song DL, Conrad ME, Alvarez-Cohen L (2004) Stable carbon isotope fractionation during aerobic biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes. Environ Sci Technol 38:3126–3130Google Scholar
  22. Chung HM, Brand SW, Grizzle PL (1981) Carbon isotope geochemistry of Paleozoic oils from Big Horn Basin. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 45:1803–1815Google Scholar
  23. Chung HM, Gormly JR, Squires RM (1988) Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons in subsurface environments: theoretical considerations of carbon isotope distribution. Chem Geol 71:97–103Google Scholar
  24. Chung HM, Rooney MA, Toon MB, Claypool GE (1992) Carbon isotope composition of marine crude oils. Bull Am Assoc Petrol Geol 76:1000–1007Google Scholar
  25. Clayton CJ (1991a) Carbon isotope fractionation during natural-gas generation from kerogen. Mar Petrol Geol 8:232–240Google Scholar
  26. Clayton CJ (1991b) Effect of maturity on carbon isotope ratios of oils and condensates. Org Geochem 17:887–899Google Scholar
  27. Coffin RB, Miyares PH, Kelley CA, Cifuentes LA, Reynolds CM (2001) δ13C and δ15N isotope analysis of TNT; two dimensional source identification. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(12):2676–2680Google Scholar
  28. Cook PF (1991) Enzyme mechanism from isotope effects. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  29. Cortes J, Rincon J, Jaramillo J, Philp R, Allen J (2010) Biomarkers and compound-specific stable carbon isotope of n-alkanes in crude oils from Eastern Llanos Basin, Colombia. J S Am Earth Sci 29:198–213Google Scholar
  30. Craig H (1953) The geochemistry of the stable carbon isotopes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 3:53–92Google Scholar
  31. Craig DR, Mauro D, Saber D, Sirivedhin T, Philp RP, Allen JA (2005) Carbon isotope ratios of PAHs in urban background soil. In: Third International Conference on Remediation of Contaminated Sediments. 57th Annual Meeting American Academy of Forensic Sciences, New Orleans, 21–26 Feb 2005Google Scholar
  32. Cuishan Z, Hong Z, Peirong W, Zebo Z, Anding C (2003) The distribution and carbon isotopic composition of unusual polycyclic alkanes in the Cretaceous Lengshuiwu Formation, China. Org Geochem 34:1027–1035Google Scholar
  33. Davis A, Howe B, Nicholson A, McCaffery S, Hoenke KA (2005) Use of geochemical forensics to determine release eras of petrochemicals to groundwater, Whitehorse, Yukon. Environ Forensic 6:253–271Google Scholar
  34. Dawson D, Grice K, Alexander R, Edwards D (2007) The effect of source and maturity on the stable isotopic compositions of individual hydrocarbons in sediments and crude oils from the Vulcan Sub-basin, Timor Sea, Northern Australia. Org Geochem 38:1015–1038Google Scholar
  35. Eckelmann W, Broecker W, Whitlock D, Allsup J (1962) Implications of carbon isotopic composition of total organic carbon of some recent sediments and ancient oils. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 46:699–704Google Scholar
  36. Eglinton G, Calvin M (1967) Chemical fossils. Sci Am 261:23–32Google Scholar
  37. Ellis L, Brown A, Schoell M, Uchytil Y (2003) Mud gas isotope logging (MGIL) assists in oil and gas drilling operations. Oil Gas J 101:32–34Google Scholar
  38. Elsner M, Zwank L, Hunkeler D, Schwarzenbach RP (2005) A new concept linking observable stable isotope fractionation to transformation pathways of organic pollutants. Environ Sci Technol 39:6896–6916Google Scholar
  39. Faure G (1986) Principles of isotope geology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Faure G, Mensing TM (2005) Isotopes: principles and applications. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  41. Feenstra S, Cherry JA (1988) Subsurface contamination by dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) chemicals. In: International Groundwater Symposium. International Association of Hydrology, Halifax, Nova ScotiaGoogle Scholar
  42. Fildani A, Hanson AD, Chen Z, Moldowan JM, Graham SA, Arriola PP (2005) Geochemical characteristics of oil and source rocks and implications for petroleum systems, Talara Basin, northwest Peru. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 89:1519–1545Google Scholar
  43. Finneran KT, Lovley DR (2001) Anaerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Environ Sci Technol 35(9):1785–1790Google Scholar
  44. Freeman KH, Hayes JM, Trendel JM, Albrecht P (1990) Evidence from carbon isotope measurements for diverse origins of sedimentary hydrocarbons. Nature 343:254–256Google Scholar
  45. Fuex A (1977) The use of stable carbon isotopes in hydrocarbon exploration. J Geochem Explor 7:155–188Google Scholar
  46. Galimov E (1968) Geochemistry of stable isotopes. Nedra, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  47. Galimov E (1973) Carbon isotopes in oil–gas geology. Nedra, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  48. Galimov EM (1985) The biological fractionation of isotopes. Academic, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  49. Galimov E, Frick M (1985) Isotopic method of source-rocks diagnostic. Geochemistry 10:1474–1486Google Scholar
  50. George SC, Boreham CJ, Minifie SA, Teerman SC (2002) The effect of minor to moderate biodegradation on C5 to C9 hydrocarbons in crude oils. Org Geochem 33:1293–1317Google Scholar
  51. Glaser B, Dreyer A, Bock M, Fiedler S, Mehring M, Heitmann T (2005) Source apportionment of organic pollutants of a highway-traffic-influenced urban area in Bayreuth (Germany) using biomarker and stable carbon isotope signatures. Environ Sci Technol 39:3911–3917Google Scholar
  52. Gormley JR, Sackett WM (1977) Carbon isotope evidence for the maturation of marine lipids. In: Campos R, Goni J (eds) Advances in organic geochemistry 1975. Enadisma, Madrid, pp 321–339Google Scholar
  53. Gray R, Lacrampe-Couloume G, Gandhi D, Scow KM, Wilson RD, Mackay DM, Sherwood Lollar B (2002) Carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation during biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether. Environ SciTechnol 36(9):1931–1938Google Scholar
  54. Griebler C, Safinowski M, Vieth A, Richnow HH, Meckenstock RU (2004) Combined application of stable carbon isotope analysis and specific metabolites determination for assessing in situ degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in a tar oil-contaminated aquifer. Environ Sci Technol 38(2):617–631Google Scholar
  55. Gürgey K, Philp P, Clayton C, Emiroglu H, Siyako M (2005) Geochemical and isotopic approach to maturity/source/mixing estimations for natural gas and associated condensates in the Thrace Basin, NW Turkey. Appl Geochem 20:2017–2037Google Scholar
  56. Han J, McCarthy ED, van Hoeven W, Calvin M, Bradley WH (1968) Organic geochemical studies. II-preliminary report on the distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons in algae, in bacteria and in recent lake sediments. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 59:29–33Google Scholar
  57. Hanson D (1999) MTBE-villian or victim. Chem Eng News 19 October, p 49Google Scholar
  58. Hatcher PG, Spiker EC, Szeverenyi NM, Maciel GE (1983) Selective preservation and origin of petroleum-forming aquatic kerogen. Nature 305:498–501Google Scholar
  59. Hayes JM, Takigiku R, Ocampo R, Callot HJ, Albrecht P (1987) Isotopic composition and probable origins of organic molecules in the Eocene Messel Shale. Nature 329:48–51Google Scholar
  60. Hayes JM, Freeman KH, Popp BN, Hoham CH (1990) Compound-specific isotopic analysis: a novel tool for reconstruction of ancient biogeochemical processes. Org Geochem 16(4–6):1115–1128Google Scholar
  61. Heraty LJ, Fuller ME, Huang L, Abrajano T, Sturchio NC (1999) Isotopic fractionation of carbon and chlorine by microbial degradation of dichloromethane. Org Geochem 30(8):739–753Google Scholar
  62. Hilkert AW, Douthitt CB, Schluter HJ, Brand WA (1999) Isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of D/H by high temperature conversion isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 13:1226–1230Google Scholar
  63. Hill R, Jarvie D, Zumberge J, Henry M, Pollastro R (2007) Oil and gas geochemistry and petroleum systems of the Fort Worth Basin. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 91:445–473Google Scholar
  64. Hoeffs J (2004) Stable isotope geochemistry. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  65. Hoeffs J, Frey M (1976) The isotopic composition of carbonaceous matter in metamorphic profile from the Swiss Alps. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 40:945–951Google Scholar
  66. Holt BD, Sturchio NC, Abrajano T, Heraty LJ (1997) Conversion of chlorinated volatile compounds to carbon dioxide and methyl chloride for isotopic analysis of carbon and chlorine. Anal Chem 69(14):2727–2733Google Scholar
  67. Hood A, Gutjahr CCM, Heacock RL (1975) Organic metamorphism and the generation of petroleum. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 59:986–996Google Scholar
  68. Hough RL, Whittaker M, Fallick AE, Preston T, Farmer JG, Pollard SJ (2006) Identifying source correlation parameters for hydrocarbon wastes using compound-specific isotope analysis. Environ Pollut 143:489–498Google Scholar
  69. Huang Y, Eglinton G, Ineson P, Latter PM, Bol R, Harkness DD (1997) Absence of carbon isotope fractionation of individual n-alkanes in a 23-year field decomposition experiment with Calluna vulgaris. Org Geochem 26:497–501Google Scholar
  70. Huang L, Sturchio NC, Abrajano T, Heraty LJ, Holt BD (1999) Carbon and chlorine isotope fractionation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by evaporation. Org Geochem 30:777–785Google Scholar
  71. Hunkeler D, Aravena R, Butler BJ (1999) Monitoring microbial dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE) in groundwater using compound-specific stable carbon isotope ratios: microcosm and field studies. Environ Sci Technol 33(16):2733–2738Google Scholar
  72. Hunkeler D, Andersen N, Aravena R, Bernasconi SM, Butler BJ (2001) Hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation during aerobic biodegradation of benzene. Environ Sci Technol 35:3462–3467Google Scholar
  73. Hunkeler D, Meckenstock RU, Sherwood Lollar B, Schmidt CT, Wilson JT (2008) A guide for assessing biodegradation and source identification of organic ground water contaminants using compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA). Office of Research and Development, Ada, OK: EPA 600/R-08/148Google Scholar
  74. Hunt J (1970) The significance of carbon isotope variations in marine sediments. In: Hobson GD, Speers GC (eds) Advances in organic geochemistry. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  75. Hunt JM (1996) Petroleum geochemistry and geology. W.H. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. IARC (1995) Dry cleaning, some chlorinated solvents and other industrial chemicals. IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans:63. International Agency for Research on Cancer, LyonGoogle Scholar
  77. Inaba T, Suzuki N (2003) Gel permeation chromatography for fractionation and isotope ratio analysis of steranes and triterpanes in oils. Org Geochem 34:635–641Google Scholar
  78. James AT (1983) Correlation of natural-gas by use of carbon isotopic distribution between hydrocarbon components. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 67:1176–1191Google Scholar
  79. Jarman WM, Hilkert A, Bacon CE, Collister JW, Ballschmitter P, Risebrough RW (1998) Compound specific carbon isotope analysis of Aroclors, Clophens, Kaneclors, and Phenoclors. Environ Sci Technol 32(6):833–836Google Scholar
  80. Jendrzejewski N, Eggenkamp HG, Coleman ML (2001) Characterization of chlorinated hydrocarbons from chlorine and carbon isotopic compositions: scope of application to environmental problems. Appl Geochem 16(9–10):1021–1031Google Scholar
  81. Karlsen DA, Nyland B, Flood B, Ohm SE, Brekke T, Olsen S, Backer-Owe K (1995) In: Cubbit JM, England WA (eds) Petroleum geochemistry of the Haltenbanken, Norwegian Continental Shelf. The Geochemistry of Reservoirs Geological Society:86. Special Publication, LondonGoogle Scholar
  82. Killops S, Killops V (2005) Introduction to organic geochemistry. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  83. Kimble BJ (1972) The Geochemihy of Timterperiod Hydrocarbions Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bristol pp. 302Google Scholar
  84. Kjeldsen P, Christophersen M, Broholm P, Höhener R, Aravena R, Hunkeler D (2003) Biodegradation of fuel vapours in the vadose zone at Airbase Værløse, Denmark. In: D. Halm and P. Grathwohl (eds), Second International Workshop on Groundwater Risk Assessment at Contaminated sites and Integrated Soil and Water Protection, Tuebingen, 20–21 March 2003. Tübinger Geowissenschaftliche Arbeiten 69:31–39Google Scholar
  85. Knoll AN (1991) End of proterozoic eon. Sci Am 265:64–73Google Scholar
  86. Kolhatkar R, Kuder T, Philp P, Allen J, Wilson JT (2002) Use of compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses to demonstrate anaerobic biodegradation of MTBE in groundwater at a gasoline release site. Environ Sci Technol 36(23):5139–5146Google Scholar
  87. Kopinke F, Georgi A, Voskamp M, Richnow HH (2005) Carbon isotope fractionation of organic contaminants due to retardation on humic substances: implications for natural attenuation studies in aquifers. Environ Sci Technol 39:6052–6062Google Scholar
  88. Kuder T, Wilson J, Kaiser P, Kolhatkar R, Philp P, Allen J (2005) Enrichment of stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes during anaerobic biodegradation of MTBE: microcosm and field evidence. Environ Sci Technol 39(1):213–220Google Scholar
  89. Kuder T, Philp RP, Allen J (2009) Effects of volatilization on carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of MTBE. Environ Sci Technol 43(6):1763–1768Google Scholar
  90. Kvenvolden K, Squires R (1967) Carbon isotopic composition of crude oils from Ellenburger Group (Lower Ordovician), Permian basin, West Texas and eastern New Mexico. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 51:1293–1303Google Scholar
  91. Kvenvolden KA, Hostettler FD, Rapp JB, Carlson PR (1993) Hydrocarbons in oil residues on beaches of islands of Prince William Sound, Alaska. Mar Pollut Bull 26:24–29Google Scholar
  92. Kvenvolden KA, Hostettler FD, Carlson PR, Bapp JB, Threlkeld CN, Warden A (1995) Ubiquitous tar balls with a California-source signature on shorelines of Prince William Sound, Alaska. Environ Sci Technol 29(10):2684–2694Google Scholar
  93. Lesser EL, Johnson PC, Aravena R, Spinnler GE, Bruce CL, Salanitro JP (2008) An evaluation of compound specific isotope analyses for assessing the biodegradation of MTBE at Port Hueneme, CA. Environ Sci Technol 42:6637–6643Google Scholar
  94. Lewan M (1983) Effects of thermal maturation on stable organic carbon isotopes as determined by hydrous pyrolysis of Woodford Shale. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47:1471–1479Google Scholar
  95. Lewan M, Williams J (1987) Evaluation of petroleum generation from resinites by hydrous pyrolysis. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 71:207–214Google Scholar
  96. Lewan M, Winters J, McDonald J (1979) Generation of oil-like pyrolysates from organic-rich shales. Science 203:896–899Google Scholar
  97. Li M, Larter S, Mei B, Bjorøy M (1995) Compound specific isotopic compositions for end members of crude oils and related source rocks from the Liaohe Basin: paleoenvironmental implications. In: Grimalt JO, Dorronsoro C (eds) Organic geochemistry: developments and application to energy, climate and human history (selected papers from the 17th International Meeting on Organic Geochemistry). A.I.G.O.A., Spain, pp 38–40Google Scholar
  98. Li M, Riediger CL, Fowler MG, Snowdon LR (1997) Unusual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Lower Cretaceous Ostracode Zone sedimentary and related oils of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Org Geochem 27:439–448Google Scholar
  99. Li M, Huang YS, Obermajer M, Jiang CQ, Snowdon LR, Fowler MG (2001) Hydrogen isotopic compositions of individual alkanes as a new approach to petroleum correlation: case studies from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Org Geochem 32:1387–1399Google Scholar
  100. Liao Y, Geng A, Xiong Y, Liu D, Lu J, Liu J, Zhang H, Geng X (2004) The influence of hydrocarbon expulsion on carbon isotopic compositions of individual n-alkanes in pyrolysates of selected terrestrial kerogens. Org Geochem 35:1479–1488Google Scholar
  101. Liu J, Geng A, Xiong Y (2006) The application of stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of individual n-alkanes to Paleozoic oil/source rock correlation enigmas in the Huanghua depression, China. J Petrol Sci Eng 54:70–78Google Scholar
  102. Macko SA, Parker PL (1983) Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios of beach tars on south Texas barrier islands. Mar Environ Res 10:93–103Google Scholar
  103. Mancini SA, Lacrampe-Couloume G, Jonker H, van Breukelen BN, Groen J, Volkering F, Sherwood Lollar B (2002) Hydrogen isotopic enrichment: an indicator of biodegradation at a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated field site. Environ Sci Technol 36(11):2464–2470Google Scholar
  104. Mancini SA, Ulrich A, Lacrampe-Couloume G, Sleep B, Edwards E, Sherwood Lollar B (2003) Carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation during anaerobic biodegradation of benzene. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:191–198Google Scholar
  105. Mansuy L, Philp RP, Allen J (1997) Source identification of oil spills based on the isotopic compositin of individual components in weathered oil samples. Environ Sci Technol 31(12):3417–3425Google Scholar
  106. Masterson WD, Dzou LIP, Holba AG, Fincannon AL, Ellis L (2001) Evidence for biodegradation and evaporative fractionation in West Sak, Kuparuk and Prudhoe Bay field areas, North Slope, Alaska. Org Geochem 32:411–441Google Scholar
  107. Matthews DE, Hayes JM (1978) Isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 50:1465–1473Google Scholar
  108. Mazeas L, Budzinski H (2002) Molecular and stable carbon isotopic source identification of oil residues and oiled bird feathers sampled along the Atlantic Coast of France after the Erika oil spill. Environ Sci Technol 36(2):130–137Google Scholar
  109. Mazeas L, Budzinski H, Raymond N (2002) Absence of stable carbon isotopic fractionation of saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during aerobic bacterial biodegradation. Org Geochem 33:1259–1272Google Scholar
  110. McKelvie JR, Mackay DM, de Sieyes NR, Lacrampe-Couloume G, Sherwood Lollar B (2007) Quantifying MTBE degradation in the Vandenberg Air Force Base ethanol release study using stable carbon isotopes. J Contam Hydrol 94:157–165Google Scholar
  111. McRae C, Sun C, Snape CE, Fallick AE, Taylor D (1999) δ13C values of coal-derived PAHs from different processes and their application to source apportionment. Org Geochem 30:881–889Google Scholar
  112. McRae C, Snape CE, Sun C, Fabbri D, Tartari D, Trombini C, Fallick AE (2000) Use of compound-specific stable isotope analysis to source anthropogenic natural gas-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Lagoon sediment. Environ Sci Technol 34:4684–4686Google Scholar
  113. Meckenstock RU, Morasch B, Kastner M, Vieth A, Richnow HH (2002) Assessment of bacterial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment by analysis of stable carbon isotope fractionation. Water Air Soil Pollut Focus 2:141–152Google Scholar
  114. Meier-Augenstein W (1999) Applied gas chromatography coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 842(1–2):351–371Google Scholar
  115. Melander L, Saunders WH (1980) Reaction rates of isotopic molecules. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  116. Mello MR, Telnaes N, Gaglianone PC, Chicarelli MI, Brassell SC, Maxwell JR (1988) Organic geochemical characterization of depositional palaeoenvironments of source rocks and oils in Brazilian marginal basins. Org Geochem 13:31–45Google Scholar
  117. Moldowan JM, Seifert W, Gallegos E (1985) Relationship between petroleum composition and depositional environment of petroleum source rocks. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 69:1255–1268Google Scholar
  118. Moldowan JM, Dahl JE, Huizinga BJ, Jacobson SR, Taylor DW (1993) The relationship of angiosperms and oleanane in petroleum through geologic time. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 77:334–335Google Scholar
  119. Murphy BL, Morrison RD (2002) Introduction to environmental forensics. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  120. Norman AL, Hopper JF, Blanchard P, Ernst D, Brice K, Alexandroi N, Klouda G (1999) The stable carbon isotope composition of atmospheric PAHs. Atmos Environ 33(17):2807–2814Google Scholar
  121. Numata M, Nakamura N, Koshikawa H, Terashima Y (2002) Chlorine isotope fractionation during reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes by anaerobic bacteria. Environ Sci Technol 36(20):4389–4394Google Scholar
  122. O’Leary M (1981) Carbon isotope fractionation in plants. Phytochemistry 20(553):567Google Scholar
  123. Odden W, Barth T, Talbot M (2002) Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of natural and artificially generated hydrocarbons in source rocks and petroleum fluids from offshore Mid-Norway. Org Geochem 33:47–65Google Scholar
  124. Okuda T, Kumata H, Zakaria MP, Naraoka H, Ishiwatari R, Takada H (2002a) Source identification of Malaysian atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons nearby forest fires using molecular and isotopic compositions. Atmos Environ 36:611–618Google Scholar
  125. Okuda T, Kumata H, Naraoka H, Ishiwatari R, Takada H (2002b) Vertical distributions and δ13C isotopic compositions of PAHs in Chidorigafuchi Moat sediment, Japan. Org Geochem 33(7):843–848Google Scholar
  126. Pallasser RJ (2000) Recognizing biodegradation in gas/oil accumulations through the δ13C compositions of gas components. Org Geochem 31:1363–1373Google Scholar
  127. Palmer SE (1993) Effect of biodegradation and water-washing on crude oil composition. In: Engel MH, Macko SE (eds) Organic geochemistry. Plenum, New York, pp 511–534Google Scholar
  128. Park R, Epstein S (1960) Carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 21:110–126Google Scholar
  129. Peters KE, Fowler MG (2002) Applications of petroleum geochemistry to exploration and reservoir management. Org Geochem 332(1):5–36Google Scholar
  130. Peters KE, Rohrback BG, Kaplan IR (1981) Carbon and hydrogen stable isotope variations in kerogen during laboratory-simulated thermal maturation. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 65:501–508Google Scholar
  131. Peters K, Moldowan JM, Driscole AR, Demaison GJ (1989) Origin of Beatrice oil by co-sourcing from Devonian and Middle Jurassic source rocks, Inner Moray Firth, United Kingdom. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 73:454–471Google Scholar
  132. Peters K, Kontorovich AEh, Moldowan JM, Andrusevich VE, Huizinga BJ, Demaison GJ, Stasova OF (1993) Geochemdhy of selected oil and Rochs from the Central Portion of the West silierian Basin Russia. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 77:863–887Google Scholar
  133. Peters KE, Walters CC, Moldowan JM (2005) The biomarker guide. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  134. Philp RP (1996) Reservoir geochemistry. The University of Oklahoma, NormanGoogle Scholar
  135. Philp RP (2003) Formation and geochemistry of oil and gas. In: Mckenzie F (vol ed), Holland HD, Turekian K (Ex. eds), Treatise on geochemistry, vol. 7, Ch 10. Elsevier, New York, pp 223–256Google Scholar
  136. Philp RP, Crisp PT (1982) Surface geochemical methods used for oil and gas prospecting. A review. J Geochem Explor 17:1–34Google Scholar
  137. Philp RP, Jarde E (2007) Application of stable and radioisotopes. In: Murphy B, Morrison R (eds) Introduction to environmental forensics. Elsevier, New York, pp 455–512Google Scholar
  138. Philp RP, Kuder T (2008) Biomarkers and stable isotopes in environmental forensic studies. In: Mudge SM (ed) Methods in environmental forensics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 113–171Google Scholar
  139. Philp RP, Allen J, Kuder T (2002) The use of the isotopic composition of individual compounds for correlating spilled oils and refined products in the environment with suspected sources. Environ Forensics 3(3–4):341–348Google Scholar
  140. Pond KL, Huang Y, Wang Y, Kulpa CF (2002) Hydrogen isotopic composition of individual n-alkanes as an intrinsic tracer for bioremediation and source identification of petroleum contamination. Environ Sci Technol 36:724–728Google Scholar
  141. Poulson SR, Drever JI (1999) Stable isotope (C, Cl, and H) fractionation during vaporization of trichloroethylene. Environ Sci Technol 33:3689–3694Google Scholar
  142. Rayleigh JWS (1896) Theoretical considerations respecting the separation of gases by diffusion and similar processes. Philos Mag 42:493–498Google Scholar
  143. Reddy CM, Heraty LJ, Holt BD, Sturchio NC, Eglinton TI, Drenzek NJ, Xu L, Lake JL, Maruya KA (2000) Stable carbon isotope compositions of Aroclors and Aroclor contaminated sediments. Environ Sci Technol 34(13):2866–2870Google Scholar
  144. Reddy CM, DeMello A, Carmichael CA, Peacock EA, Xu L, Arey JS (2008) Determination of biodiesel blending percentages using natural abundance radiocarbon analysis: testing the accuracy of retail biodiesel blends. Environ Sci Technol 42(7):2476–2482Google Scholar
  145. Richnow HH, Meckenstock RU, Reitzel LA, Baun A, Ledin A, Christensen TH (2003) In situ biodegradation determined by carbon isotope fractionation of aromatic hydrocarbons in an anaerobic landfill leachate plume (Vejen, Denmark). J Contam Hydrol 64(1–2):59–72Google Scholar
  146. Riediger C, Fowler M, Snowdon L (1997) Organic geochemistry of the Lower Cretaceous Ostracode Zone, a brackish/non-marine source for some lower Manville oils in southeastern Alberta. Can Soc Petrol Geol Mem 18:93–102Google Scholar
  147. Rogers KM, Savard MM (1999) Detection of petroleum contamination in river sediments from Quebec City region using GC–IRMS. Org Geochem 30(12):1559–1569Google Scholar
  148. Rooney MA, Vuletich AK, Griffith CE (1998) Compoundspecific isotope analysis as a tool for characterizing mixed oils: an example from the west of Shetlands area. Org Geochem 29:241–254Google Scholar
  149. Saber D, Mauro D, Philp RP, Allen J, Kuder T (2003) Carbon isotope ratios of PAHs in urban background soil. Battelle Meeting, Orlando, June 2003Google Scholar
  150. Saber D, Mauro D, Philp RP, Allen JA (2005) Chemical fingerprinting of sediments and soils near a former MPG site. In: Third International Conference on Remediation of Contaminated Sediments, New Orleans, January 2005 Abstract onlyGoogle Scholar
  151. Sackett WM, Eadie BJ, Exner ME (1974) Stable isotope composition of organic carbon in recent Antarctic sediments. In: Tissot B, Bienner F (eds) Advances in organic geochemistry 1973. Technip, Paris, pp 661–671Google Scholar
  152. Sakaguchi-Söder K, Jager J, Grund H, Matthäus F, Schüth C (2007) Monitoring and evaluation of dechlorination processes using compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 21:3077–3084Google Scholar
  153. Schaeffer P, Poinsot J, Hauke V, Adam P, Wehrung P, Trendel JM, Albrecht P, Dessort D, Connan J (1994) Novel optically active hydrocarbons in sediments: evidence for an extensive biological cyclization of higher regular polyphenols. Angew Chem Int 33:1166–1169Google Scholar
  154. Schimmelmann A, Lewan MD, Wintsch RP (1999) D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types I, II, IIS, and III. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:3751–3766Google Scholar
  155. Schimmelmann A, Boudou JP, Lewan MD, Wintsch RP (2001) Experimental controls on D/H and 13C/12C ratios of kerogen, bitumen and oil during hydrous pyrolysis. Org Geochem 32:1009–1018Google Scholar
  156. Schimmelmann A, Sessions A, Mastalerz M (2006) Hydrogen isotopic (D/H) composition of organic matter during diagenesis and thermal maturation. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 34:501–533Google Scholar
  157. Schmidt TC, Zwank L, Elsner M, Berg M, Meckenstock RU, Haderlein SB (2004) Compound-specific stable isotope analysis of organic contaminants in natural environments: a critical review of the state of the art, prospects, and future challenges. Anal Bioanal Chem 378:283–300Google Scholar
  158. Schoell M (1983) Genetic characterization of natural gases. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 67:2225–2238Google Scholar
  159. Schoell M (1984a) Recent advances in petroleum isotope geochemistry. Org Geochem 6:645–663Google Scholar
  160. Schoell M (1984b) Stable isotopes in petroleum research. In: Brooks J, Welte D (eds) Advances in petroleum geochemistry, vol 1. Academic, London, pp 215–245Google Scholar
  161. Schoell M (1988) Multiple origins of methane in the Earth. Chem Geol 71:1–10Google Scholar
  162. Schoell M (1994) Carbon isotopic composition of individual biomarkers in gilsonites (Utah). Org Geochem 21:673–683Google Scholar
  163. Schoell M, Jenden PD (1993) Isotope analysis of gases in gas field and gas storage. SPE Paper 26171, 337–344. SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, June 1993Google Scholar
  164. Schuth C, Taubald H, Bolano N, Maciejczyk K (2003) Carbon and hydrogen isotope effects during sorption of organic contaminants on carbonaceous materials. J Contam Hydrol 64:269–281Google Scholar
  165. Shouakar-Stash O, Alexeev SV, Frape SK, Alexeeva LP, Drimmie RJ (2007) Geochemistry and stable isotopic signatures, including chlorine and bromine isotopes, of the deep groundwaters of the Siberian Platform, Russia. Appl Geochem 22(3):589–605Google Scholar
  166. Seifert WK, Moldowan JM (1978) Applications of steranes, terpanes and monoaromatics to the maturation, migration and source of crude oils. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:77–95Google Scholar
  167. Seifert WK, Moldowan JM (1981) Paleoreconstruction by biological markers. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 45:783–794Google Scholar
  168. Seifert WK, Moldowan JM, Smith GW, Whitehead EV (1978) First proof of a C28 pentacyclic triterpane in petroleum. Nature 271:436–437Google Scholar
  169. Sessions AL, Sylva SP, Summons RE, Hayes JM (2004) Isotopic exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen over geologic timescales. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:1545–1559Google Scholar
  170. Sherwood Lollar B, Slater GF, Sleep B, Witt M, Kledka GM, Harkness M, Spivack J (2001) Stable carbon isotope evidence for intrinsic bioremediation of tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene at area 6, Dover Air Force Base. Environ Sci Technol 35(2):261–269Google Scholar
  171. Shouakar-Stash O, Frape SK, Drimmie RJ (2003) Stable hydrogen, carbon and chlorine isotope measurements of selected chlorinated organic solvents. J Contam Hydrol 60(3–4):211–228Google Scholar
  172. Shouakar-Stash O, Frape SK, Drimmie RJ (2005a) Determination of bromine stable isotopes using continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 77:4027–4033Google Scholar
  173. Shouakar-Stash O, Drimmie RJ, Frape SK (2005b) Determination of inorganic chlorine stable isotopes by conditions flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 19:121–127Google Scholar
  174. Shouakar-Stash O, Drimmie RJ, Zhang M, Frape SK (2006) Compound specific chlorine isotope ratio of TCE, PCE, and DCE isomers by direct injection using CF-IRM. Appl Geochem 21:766–781Google Scholar
  175. Shouakar-Stash O, Frape SK, Aravena R (2009) Analysis of compound-specific chlorine stable isotopes of vinyl chloride by continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (FC-IRMS). Environ Forensics 10:299–306Google Scholar
  176. Silverman SR (1965) Migration and segregation of oil and gas. In Young A, Galley GE (eds) Fluids in subsurface environments. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Memoir 4:54–65Google Scholar
  177. Silverman S, Epstein S (1958) Carbon isotopic compositions of petroleums and other sedimentary organic materials. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 42:998–1012Google Scholar
  178. Slater GF (2003) Stable isotope forensics – when isotopes work. Environ Forensics 4:13–23Google Scholar
  179. Slater GF, Sherwood Lollar B, Sleep BE, Edwards EA (2001) Variability in carbon isotopic fractionation during biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes: implications for field applications. Environ Sci Technol 35(5):901–907Google Scholar
  180. Slatt R (2006) Stratigraphic reservoir characterization for petroleum geologists, geophysicists, and engineers. In: Handbook of petroleum exploration and production, vol 6. Elsevier, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  181. Smallwood BJ, Philp RP, Burgoyne TW, Allen JD (2001) The use of stable isotopes to differentiate specific source markers for MTBE. Environ Forensics 2:215–221Google Scholar
  182. Smallwood BJ, Philp RP, Allen J (2002) Stable carbon isotopic composition of gasolines determined by isotope ratio monitoring gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Org Geochem 33(2):149–159Google Scholar
  183. Smirnov A, Abrajano TA, Smirnov A, Stark A (1998) Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of Lake Erie, Part 1. Spatial distribution, transport, and deposition. Org Geochem 29(5–7):1813–1828Google Scholar
  184. Sofer Z (1984) Stable carbon isotope compositions of crude oils: application to source depositional environments and petroleum alteration. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 68:31–49Google Scholar
  185. Sofer Z (1991) Stable isotopes in petroleum exploration. Source and migration process and evaluation techniques. Amoco Production, Tulsa, pp 103–106Google Scholar
  186. Somsamak P, Cowan RM, Haggblom MM (2001) Anaerobic biotransformation of fuel oxygenates under different anoxic conditions. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 37:259–264Google Scholar
  187. Song DL, Conrad ME, Sorenson KS, Alvarez-Cohen L (2002) Stable carbon isotope fractionation during enhanced in-situ bioremediation of trichlorethene. Environ Sci Technol 36:2262–2268Google Scholar
  188. Stahl W (1977) Carbon and nitrogen isotopes in hydrocarbon research and exploration. Chem Geol 20:121–149Google Scholar
  189. Stahl W (1978) Source rock-crude oil correlation by isotope type curves. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 43:1573–1577Google Scholar
  190. Stahl W (1980) Compositional changes and 13C/12C fractionations during the degradation of hydrocarbons by bacteria. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 44:1903–1907Google Scholar
  191. Stalker L, Larter SR, Farrimond P (1998) Biomarker binding into keogens: evidence from hydrous pyrolysis using heavy water (D2O). Org Geochem 28:239–253Google Scholar
  192. Staplin F (1969) Sedimentary organic matter, organic metamorphism, and oil and gas occurrences. Bull Can Petrol Geol 17:47–66Google Scholar
  193. Stoddart DP, Hall PB, Larter SR, Brasher J, Li M, Bjorøy M (1995) In: Cubitt JM, England WA (eds) The reservoir geochemistry of the Eldfish field, Norweigian North Sea. The Geochemistry of Reservoirs Geological Society 86:257–279 Special Publication, LondonGoogle Scholar
  194. Stuermer DH, Peters KE, Kaplan IR (1978) Source indicators of humic substances and proto-kerogen: Stable isotope ratios, elemental composition, and electron spin resonance spectra. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:989–997Google Scholar
  195. Sturchio NC, Clausen JL, Heraty L, Huang L, Holt BD, Abrajano T (1998) Chlorine isotope investigation of natural attenuation of trichloroethene in an aerobic aquifer. Environ Sci Technol 32(20):3037–3042Google Scholar
  196. Sturchio NC, Hatzinger PB, Arkins MD, Suh C, Heraty LJ (2003) Chlorine isotope fractionation during microbial reduction of perchlorate. Environ Sci Technol 37(17):3859–3863Google Scholar
  197. Sturchio NC, Bohlke JK, Gu B, Hatzinger PB, Jackson WA (2011) Isotopic tracing of perchlorate in the environment. In: Baskaran M (ed) Handbook of environmental isotope geochemistry. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  198. Suggate RP (1959) Paparoa mine area. Greymouth coalfield; swelling properties and reserves of coal. NZ J Geol Geophys 2:355–367Google Scholar
  199. Sun Y, Chen Z, Xu S, Cai S (2005) Stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation of individual n-alkanes accompanying biodegradation: evidence from a group of progressively biodegraded oils. Org Geochem 36:225–238Google Scholar
  200. Tissot B, Welte D (1984) Petroleum formation and occurrence, 2nd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  201. USA EPA (2008) A guide for assessing biodegradation and source ideintification of organic ground water contaminants using compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA). EPA 600/R-08/148, December 2008Google Scholar
  202. Van Breukelen BM, Prommer H (2005) Beyond the Rayleigh equation: reactive transport modeling of isotope fractionation effects to improve quantification of biodegradation. Environ Sci Technol 42:2457–2463Google Scholar
  203. van Breukelen BM, Hunkeler D, Volkering F (2005) Quantification of sequential chlorinated ethene degradation by use of a reactive transport model incoproating isotope fractionation. Environ Sci Technol 39:4189–4197Google Scholar
  204. Wang Y, Huang Y (2003) Hydrogen isotopic fractionation of petroleum hydrocarbons during vaporization: implications for assessing artificial and natural remediation of petroleum contamination. Appl Geochem 18:1641–1651Google Scholar
  205. Wang Z, Stout SA (2007) Oil spill environmental forensics: fingerprinting and source identification. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  206. Wang Y, Huang Y, Huckins JN, Petty JD (2004) Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol 38:3689–3697Google Scholar
  207. Wassenaar L, Koehler G (2004) On-line technique for the determination of the 37Cl of inorganic and total organic Cl in environmental samples. Anal Chem 76:6384–6388Google Scholar
  208. Welte D, Hagemann H, Hollerbach A, Leythauser D, Stahl W (1975) Correlation between petroleum and source rock. Proceedings of Ninth World Petroleum Congress. Applied Science Publishers II, London, pp 179–191Google Scholar
  209. Wen S, Feng Y, Yu Y, Bi X, Wang X, Sheng G, Fu J, Peng P (2005) Development of a compound-specific isotope analysis method for atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Environ Sci Technol 39(16):6202–6207Google Scholar
  210. Whiticar M (1990) A geochemical perspective of natural gas and atmospheric methane. Org Geochem 16:531–547Google Scholar
  211. Whiticar M (1996) Stable isotope geochemistry of coals, humic kerogens and related natural gases. Int J Coal Geol 32:191–215Google Scholar
  212. Whiticar M, Faber E (1986) Methane oxidation in sediment and water column environments-isotope evidence. Org Geochem 10:759–768Google Scholar
  213. Whiticar M, Faber E, Schoell M (1985) Hydrogen and carbon isotopes of C1 to C5 alkanes in natural gases. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 69:316Google Scholar
  214. Wilcke W, Krauss M, Amelung W (2002) Carbon isotope signature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): evidence for different sources in tropical and temperate environments. Environ Sci Technol 36(16):3530–3535Google Scholar
  215. Wilkes H, Boreham C, Harms G, Zengler K, Rabus R (2000) Anaerobic degradation and carbon isotopic fractionation of alkylbenzenes in crude oil by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Org Geochem 31(1):101–115Google Scholar
  216. Xiong Y, Geng A (2000) Carbon isotopic composition of individual n-alkanes in asphaltene pyrolysates of biodegraded crude oils from the Liaohe basin, China. Org Geochem 31:1441–1449Google Scholar
  217. Xiong Y, Geng A, Wang C, Sheng G, Fu J (2003) The origin of crude oils from the Shuguang-Huanxiling buried hills in the Liaohe Basin, China: evidences from chemical and isotopic compositions. Appl Geochem 18:445–456Google Scholar
  218. Xiong Y, Geng A, Pan C, Liu D, Peng P (2005) Characterization of the hydrogen isotopic composition of individual n-alkanes in terrestrial source rocks. Appl Geochem 20:455–464Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geology and GeophysicsUniversity of OklahomaNormanUSA

Personalised recommendations