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Applications of Transuranics as Tracers and Chronometers in the Environment

  • Michael E. KettererEmail author
  • Jian Zheng
  • Masatoshi Yamada
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Isotope Geochemistry book series (ADISOTOPE)

Abstract

The transuranic elements (TRU) Np, Pu, Am, and Cm have prominently emerged as powerful tracers of earth and environmental processes, applicable to the recent, post nuclear-era timescale. Various long-lived isotopes of these elements are found in the earth’s surface environment, almost exclusively as a result of nuclear weapons production, testing, or nuclear fuel cycle activities. A globally recognizable signal, of consistent composition, from stratospheric fallout derived from 1950–1960 above-ground weapons tests is itself useful in tracing applications; in specific local/regional settings, stratospheric fallout is mixed with or dominated by other TRU sources with contrasting isotopic signatures. Both decay-counting and MS approaches have been utilized to measure the concentrations and isotopic ratios of TRU and are useful as discriminators for source characterization, provenance, and apportionment. Examples include the activity ratios 238Pu/239+240Pu, 241Am/239+240Pu, and 241Pu/239+240Pu; atom ratios such as 240Pu/239Pu, 237Np/239Pu, 241Pu/239Pu, and 242Pu/239Pu are also used in this context. Of the TRU elements, Pu is by far the most widely studied; accordingly, this chapter mainly emphasizes the use of Pu activities and/or atom ratios as tracers and/or chronometers. Nevertheless, Pu is sometimes measured in combination with one or more isotopes of other elements. The TRU elements offer several prominent applications in environmental/geochemical tracing: (1) chronostratigraphy of sediments and related recent Holocene deposits; (2) using fallout TRU as quantitative probes of soil erosion, transport and deposition; (3) investigating water mass circulation, the transport and scavenging of particulate matter, and tracking the marine geochemical behavior of the TRU elements themselves in the marine environment; and (4) studies of the local/regional transport, deposition and inventories of non-fallout TRU in the surficial environment.

Keywords

Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Alpha Spectrometry Global Fallout Tsushima Basin Fallout Deposition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank J.W. Mietelski for providing the alpha spectrum shown in Fig. 20.3. The authors are indebted to J.W. Mietelski, T.C. Kenna, one anonymous reviewer, and the editorship of M. Baskaran for constructive criticisms of the manuscript. MEK acknowledges ICPMS instrumentation support from Intel Corp., NSF MRI Award No. CHE0118604, and the State of Arizona Technology Research and Innovation Fund. MEK also owes thanks for nearly two decades of rich and productive interactions with many students and collaborators, and is gratefully indebted to JAK for perspective and inspiration towards facing apparent difficulties in life.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael E. Ketterer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jian Zheng
    • 2
  • Masatoshi Yamada
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryNorthern Arizona UniversityFlagstaffUSA
  2. 2.Environmental Radiation Effects Research GroupNational Institute of Radiological SciencesChibaJapan

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