Advertisement

Skin Paths for Contextual Flagging Adult Videos

  • Julian Stöttinger
  • Allan Hanbury
  • Christian Liensberger
  • Rehanullah Khan
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5876)

Abstract

User generated video content has become increasingly popular, with a large number of internet video sharing portals appearing. Many portals wish to rapidly find and remove objectionable material from the uploaded videos. This paper considers the flagging of uploaded videos as potentially objectionable due to sexual content of an adult nature. Such videos are often characterized by the presence of a large amount of skin, although other scenes, such as close-ups of faces, also satisfy this criterion. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce to this task two uses of contextual information in the form of detected faces. The first is to use a combination of different face detectors to adjust the parameters of the skin detection model. The second is through the summarization of a video in the form of a path in a skin-face plot. This plot allows potentially objectionable segments of videos to be found, while ignoring segments containing close-ups of faces. The proposed approach runs in real-time. Experiments are done on per pixel annotated and challenging on-line videos from an on-line service provider to prove our approach. Large scale experiments are carried out on 200 popular public video clips from web platforms. These are chosen from the community (top-rated) and cover a large variety of different skin-colors, illuminations, image quality and difficulty levels. We find a compact and reliable representation for videos to flag suspicious content efficiently.

Keywords

Skin Color Color Space Face Detection Online Video Sexual Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Argyros, A.A., Lourakis, M.I.: Real-time tracking of multiple skin-colored objects with a possibly moving camera. In: Pajdla, T., Matas, J(G.) (eds.) ECCV 2004. LNCS, vol. 3023, pp. 368–379. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cha, M., Kwak, H., Rodriguez, P., Ahn, Y.-Y., Moon, S.: I tube, you tube, everybody tubes: analyzing the world’s largest user generated content video system. In: Int. Conf. Internet Measurement, pp. 1–14 (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chai, D., Ngan, K.N.: Locating facial region of a head-and-shoulders color image. In: Int. Conf. Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pp. 124–129 (1998)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fleck, M.M., Forsyth, D.A., Bregler, C.: Finding naked people. In: Buxton, B.F., Cipolla, R. (eds.) ECCV 1996. LNCS, vol. 1064, pp. 593–602. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jones, M.J., Rehg, J.M.: Statistical color models with application to skin detection. IJCV 46(1), 81–96 (2002)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kakumanu, P., Makrogiannis, S., Bourbakis, N.: A survey of skin-color modeling and detection methods. PR 40(3), 1106–1122 (2007)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Khan, R., Stöttinger, J., Kampel, M.: An adaptive multiple model approach for fast content-based skin detection in on-line videos. In: Int. Workshop Analysis and Retrieval of Events/Actions and Workflows in Video Streams (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee, J.-S., Kuo, Y.-M., Chung, P.-C., Chen, E.-L.: Naked image detection based on adaptive and extensible skin color model. PR 40(8), 2261–2270 (2007)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liensberger, C., Stöttinger, J., Kampel, M.: Color-based and context-aware skin detection for online video annotation. In: MMSP (to appear, 2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Phung, M.-S.L., Bouzerdoum, S. M.-A., Chai, S. M.-D.: Skin segmentation using color pixel classification: Analysis and comparison. PAMI 27(1), 148–154 (2005)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Senior, A., Hsu, R.-L., Mottaleb, M.A., Jain, A.K.: Face detection in color images. PAMI 24(5), 696–706 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vezhnevets, V., Sazonov, V., Andreev, A.: A survey on pixel-based skin color detection techniques. In: ICCGV, pp. 85–92 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Viola, P., Jones, M.J.: Robust real-time face detection. IJCV 57(2), 137–154 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yang, M., Ahuja, N.: Gaussian mixture model for human skin color and its application in image and video databases. In: SPIE, pp. 458–466 (1999)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zheng, H., Daoudi, M., Jedynak, B.: Blocking adult images based on statistical skin detection. ELCVIA 4(2), 1–14 (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julian Stöttinger
    • 1
    • 2
  • Allan Hanbury
    • 3
  • Christian Liensberger
    • 4
  • Rehanullah Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.PRIPVienna University of TechnologyAustria
  2. 2.CogVis Ltd.ViennaAustria
  3. 3.Information Retrieval FacilitiesViennaAustria
  4. 4.MicrosoftRedmondUSA

Personalised recommendations