Comparative and Veterinary Pharmacology pp 159-189

Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 199)

Pain and Analgesia in Domestic Animals

Chapter

Abstract

The biggest challenge to the use of analgesic agents in animals is the determination of the efficacy of these agents. In humans, the verbal communication of the alleviation of pain is fundamental to the effective use of analgesics. In animals, the lack of verbal communication not only confounds the diagnosis and characterisation of the experience of pain, but also challenges the evaluation of the analgesic therapy. As animals possess the same neuronal pathways and neurotransmitter receptors as humans, it seems reasonable to expect that their perceptions of painful stimuli will be similar, and this is a basis for the use of laboratory animals for screening of analgesics for human use. However, as the evaluation in the laboratory animal tests is based mainly on behavioural responses, and although some physiological responses do occur, it is often difficult to separate these from stress responses.

The use of behavioural responses to evaluate analgesics in a range of species is complicated by the fact that different species show different behaviours to a similar pain stimulus, and different pain stimuli produce different pain responses in the same species. Thus behaviours may be species- and pain-specific and this can complicate analgesic evaluation. As most animals possess similar neuronal mechanisms to humans for pain perception, it is not surprising that the standard human pain control strategies can be applied to animals. For instance, local anaesthetics, opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), as well as other analgesics used in humans are all found to be effective for animal use. Differences in metabolism and distribution between various species, as well as financial considerations in larger animals can affect efficacy and thus limit their use. In addition, the use of any drug in a species that may be intended for human consumption will be limited by residue considerations.

The treatment of pain in animals presents many challenges, but the increasing public concerns regarding animal welfare will ensure that studies into the nature and control of animal pain will continue to have a high profile.

Keywords

Pain Pain evaluation Pain perception Pain recognition Analgesic agents 

References

  1. Abbitt LE, Davis LE, Neff-Davis CA (1978) Effect of toxic hepatitis on pharmacokinetics of salicylate in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1:299–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barr ARS, Dow SM, Goodship AE (1995) Parameters of ground reaction force in 48 normal ponies. Vet Rec 136:285–286Google Scholar
  3. Bennett RA (1998) Reptile anesthesia. Sem Avian Exot Pet Med 7:30–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennett GJ, Xie YK (1988) A peripheral neuropathy in rat that produces pain sensation like those seen in man. Pain 33:87–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bishop Y (ed) (1998) The Veterinary Formulary, 4th edn. Pharmaceutical Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Blaupied TA, Clarke RJ, Johnson JW (2005) Amantadine inhibits NMDA receptors by accelerating channel closure during channel block. J Neurosci 25:3312–3322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bölcskei K, Helyes Z, Szabó A, Sándor K, Elekes K, Németh J, Almási R, Pintér E, Petho G, Szolcsányi J (2005) Investigation of the TRPVI receptors in acute and chronic nociceptive processes in gene deficient mice. Pain 117:368–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowring J (1962) The works of Jeremy Bentham, vol 1. Russell and Russell, New York, pp 142–143Google Scholar
  9. Brandt S, Livingston A (1990) Receptor changes in the spinal cord of sheep associated with exposure to chronic pain. Pain 42:323–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buback JL, Boothe HW, Carroll GL (1996) Comparison of three methods for relief of pain after ear canal ablation in dogs. Vet Surg 25:380–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cakala S (1961) A technique for paravertebral lumbar block in cattle. Cornell Vet 51:64–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Caraceni A, Zecca E, Martini C, De Conno F (1999) Gabapentin as an adjuvant to opioid analgesia for neuropathic cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 17:441–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carsten RE, Hellyer PW, Bachand AM, LaRue SM (2008) Correlations between acute radiation scores and pain scores in canine radiation patients with cancer of the forelimb. Vet Anaesth Analg 35:355–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cassuto J, Wallin G, Högström S, Faxén A, Rimbäck G (1985) Inhibition of post-operative pain by continuous low dose intravenous infusion of lidocaine. Anaesth Analg 64:971–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cathelin MF (1901) Une nouvelle voie d”injection rachidienne. Methode de injections epidurals par le procede du canal sacre. Applications a l’homme. Comp Rend Soc Biol 53:452Google Scholar
  16. Catterall W, Mackie K (1996) Local anesthetics. In: Hardman JC, Limbird LE, Molinoff PB, Ruddon RW, Goodman Gilman A (eds) Goodman and Gilman’s The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 9th edn. McGraw Hill, Montreal, pp 331–347Google Scholar
  17. Chambers JP, Livingston A, Waterman AE, Goodship AE (1993) Analgesic effects of detomidine in throughbred horses with chronic tendon injury. Res Vet Sci 54:52–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Coderre TJ, Wall PD (1987) Ankle joint urate arthritis in rats: an alternative animal model to that produced by Freunds adjuvant. Pain 28:379–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cowan A, Doxey JC, Harry EJR (1997) The animal pharmacology of buprenorphine, an oripavine analgesic agent. Br J Pharmacol 60:547–554Google Scholar
  20. Critchley JA, Nimmo GR, Gregson CA, Woolhouse NM, Prescott LF (1986) Inter-subject and ethnic differences in paracetamol metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol 22:649–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. D’Amour F, Smith D (1941) A method for determining loss of pain sensation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 72:74–79Google Scholar
  22. Dawson W, Boot JR, Harvey J, Walker JR (1982) The pharmacology of benoxaprofen with particular reference to the effects on lipoxygenase product formation. Eur J Rheumatol Inflamm 5:61–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dixon MJ, Robertson SA, Taylor PM (2002) A thermal threshold testing device for evaluation of analgesics in cats. Res Vet Sci 72:205–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dixon MJ, Taylor PM, Steagall PVM, Brondani JT, Luna SP (2007) Development of a pressure nociceptive threshold testing device for evaluation of analgesics in cats. Res Vet Sci 82:85–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dobromylskyj P, Flecknell PA, Lascelles BDX, Pascoe PJ, Taylor P, Waterman-Pearson A (2000) Management of post operative and other acute pain. In: Flecknell P, Waterman-Pearson A (eds) Pain management in animals. Saunders, London, pp 81–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Doherty TJ, Frazier DL (1998) Effect of intravenous lidocaine on halothane minimum alveolar concentrations in ponies. Equine Vet J 30:329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dohoo S, Tasker RAR, Donald A (1994) Pharmacokinetics of parental and oral sustained release morphine sulphate in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 17:426–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dolan S, Kelly JG, Monteiro AM, Nolan AM (2003) Up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes 3 and 5 in spinal cord in a clinical model of persistant inflammation and hyperalgesia. Pain 106:501–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Duncan IJ, Slee GS, Seawright E, Breward J (1989) Behavioral consequences of partial beak amputation (beak trimming) in poultry. Br Poult Sci 30:479–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Editorial (2008) Kennel club launches review of UK pedigree dog breeds. Vet Rec 163:464Google Scholar
  31. Ekstrom P, Short C, Gelmer T (1993) Electroencephalography of detomidine – ketamine – halothane and detomidine – ketamine – isoflurane anesthetized horses during orthopaedic surgery: a comparison. Vet Surg 22:414–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Espejo LA, Endres MI, Salfer JA (2006) Prevalence of lameness in high producing Holstein cows housed in free stall barns in Minnesota. J Dairy Sci 89:3052–3058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Findlay GA, McGrath PJ (eds) (1998) Measurement of pain in infants and children. IASP, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  34. Flecknell PA (1996) Laboratory animal anaesthesia, 2nd edn. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. Flecknell PA, Liles JH, Williamson HA (1990) The use of lignocaine – prilocaine local anaesthetic cream for pain-free venipuncture in laboratory animals. Lab Anim 24:142–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Flower FC, Sanderson DJ, Weary DM (2005) Hoof pathologies influence kinematic measures of dairy cow gait. J Dairy Sci 88:3166–3173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gaynor JS (2000) Acupuncture for the management of pain. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 30:875–881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gentle MJ, Hughes BO, Fox A, Waddington D (1997) Behavioral and anatomical consequences of two beak trimming methods in 1 and 10 day old domestic chicks. Br Poult Sci 38:453–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gibson SJ, Weiner DK (eds) (2005) Pain in older persons. Progress in pain research and management, vol 35. IASP, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  40. Gingerich DA, Strobel JD (2003) Use of client-specific outcome measures to assess treatment effects in geriatric arthritic dogs, controlled clinical evaluation of a nutraceutical. Vet Ther 4:378–386Google Scholar
  41. Glew A, Aviad AD, Keister M (1996) Use of ketoprofen as an antipyretic in cats. Can Vet J 37:222–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Graham H (1956) Surgeons all. Rich and Cowan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  43. Haldane ES, Ross GRT (1989) Selections from discourse on method, part 5. In: Philosophic Works of Descartes, vol 1. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 115–118Google Scholar
  44. Hansen Lascelles BDX, Keene BW, Adams AK, Thomson AE (2007) Evaluation of an accelerometer for at- home monitoring of spontaneous activity in dogs. Am J Vet Res 68:468–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Holton LL, Scott EM, Nolan AM, Reid J, Welsh E, Flaherty D (1998) Comparison of three methods for the assessment of pain in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 212:61–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ikeda R, Takahashi Y, Inoue K, Kato F (2007) NMDA receptor independent synaptic plasticity in the central amygdala in the rat model of neuropathic pain. Pain 127:161–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ingvast-Larsson C, Svartberg K, Hydbring-Sandberg E, Bondesson U, Olsson K (2007) Clinical pharmacology of buprenorphine in healthy lactating goats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 30:249–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jochle W, Hamm D (1986) Sedation and analgesia with Domesedan (detomidine hydrochloride) in horses: dose response studies on efficacy and its duration. Acta Vet Scand 582:69–84Google Scholar
  49. Johnson C, Wilson P, Woodbury M, Caulkett NA (2005) Comparison of analgesic techniques for antler removal in halothane anaesthetised red deer (Cervus elaphus): electroencephalographic responses. Vet Anaesth Analg 32:61–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kalso E, Sullivan AF, McQuay HJ, Dickenson AH (1991) Interactions between alpha 2 adrenergic, opioid and FLFQPQRF amide influences on nociception in the dorsal horn of anaesthetised rats. J Physiol 438:196PGoogle Scholar
  51. Kamerling SG, Weckman TJ, DeQuick DJ, Tobin T (1985) A method for studying cutaneous pain perception and analgesia in horses. J Pharm Methods 13:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kayser V, Bessan JM, Guilbaud G (1992) Evidence for a noradrenergic component in the antinociceptive effect of the analgesic agent tramadol in an animal model of clinical pain, the arthritic rat. Eur J Pharmacol 224:85–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kehlet H, Jensen TS, Woolf CJ (2006) Persistent post-surgical pain: risk factors and prevention. Lancet 367:1618–1625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Keogh E, Herdenfeldt M (2002) Gender, coping and the perception of pain. Pain 97:195–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Klide AM, Martin BB (1989) A comparison of three different methods of acupuncture for treating chronic back pain in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 195:1375–1379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kohrs R, Durieux ME (1998) Ketamine: Teaching an old drug new tricks. Anaesth Analg 87:1186–1193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kukanich B, Papich MG (2004) Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and the metabolite o-desmethyltramadol in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 27:239–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kuo FL, Craig JV, Muir WM (1991) Selection and beak trimming effects on behaviour, cannibalism and short term production traits in White Leghorn pullets. Poult Sci 70:1057–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kyles AE, Papich M, Hardie EM (1996) Disposition of transdermally administered fentanyl in dogs. Am J Vet Res 57:715–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lamont L, Tranquilli WJ, Mathews KA (2000) Adjunctive analgesic therapy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 30:805–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lascelles BDX, Cripps PJ, Jones A, Waterman-Pearson AE (1998) Efficacy and kinetics of carprofen, administered preoperatively or postoperatively for the prevention of pain in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Vet Surg 27:568–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lascelles BDX, Gaynor J, Smith ES, Roe SC, Marcellin-Little DJ, Davidson G, Carr J (2007a) Evaluation of amantadine as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen for the alleviation of refractory canine osteoarthritis pain. J Vet Intern Med 21:606–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lascelles BDX, Hanson BD, Roe S, DePuy V, Thomson A, Pierce CC, Smith ES, Rowinski E (2007b) Evaluation of client-specific outcome measures and activity monitoring to measure pain relief in cats with osteoarthritis. J Vet Intern Med 21:410–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lascelles BDX, Hansen BD, Thomson AE, Pierce CC, Boland E, Smith ES (2008) Evaluation of a digitally integrated accelerometer-based activity monitor for the measurement of activity in cats. Vet Anaesth Analg 35:173–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lavelle JP, Meyers SA, Ruiz WG, Buffington CA, Zeidel ML, Apodaca G (2000) Urothelial pathophysiological changes in feline interstitial cystitis: a human model. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 278:F540–F553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lees P, Higgins AJ (1985) Clinical pharmacology and therapeutic uses of non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs in the horse. Equine Vet J 17:83–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lees P, Higgins AJ, Sedgwick AD, May SA (1987) Applications of equine models of acute inflammation. Vet Rec 120:522–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Lees P, May SA, McKellar QA (1991) Pharmacology and therapeutics of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the dog and cat. Gen Pharmacol J Small Anim Pract 32:183–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lees P, Giraudel J, Landoni MF, Toutain PL (2004a) PK-PD integration and PK-PD modelling of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: principles and applications in veterinary pharmacology. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 27:491–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lees P, Landoni MF, Giraudel J, Toutain PL (2004b) Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in species of veterinary interest. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 27:479–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lewis KS, Hau NH (1996) Tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic. Am J Health Syst Pharm 54:643–652Google Scholar
  72. Ley SJ, Livingston A, Waterman AE (1989) The effect of chronic clinical pain on thermal and mechanical thresholds in sheep. Pain 39:353–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Li CY, Zhang XL, Matthews E, Li KW, Kurwa A, Boroujerdi A, Gross J, Gold MS, Dickenson AH, Geng G, Luo ZD (2006) Calcium channel alpha 2 delta 1 subunit mediates spinal hyperexcitability in pain modulation. Pain 125:20–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Liles JH, Flecknell PA (1992) The use of non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs for the relief of pain in laboratory rodents and rabbits. Lab Animals 26:241–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Livingston A (1994) Physiological basis for pain perception in animals. Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Veterinary Anaesthia, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  76. Livingston A (2003) Recent developments in pain control in humans and their relevance to animals. Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Veterinary Anaesthia, pp 31–34Google Scholar
  77. Livingston A, Acevedo MEG, Kyles A, Waterman A (1991) The effects of droperidol on fentanyl induced dysphoria in the sheep. Acta Vet Scand 87:170–171Google Scholar
  78. Machin KL (1999) Amphibian pain and analgesia. J Zoo Wild L Med 30:2–10Google Scholar
  79. Machin KL (2005) Avian analgesia. Sem Avian Exot Pet Med 14:236–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mama KR, Pascoe PJ, Steffey EP (1992) Evaluation of the interaction of mu and kappa opioid agonists on locomotor behaviour in the horse. Can J Vet Res 57:106–109Google Scholar
  81. Manning AM, Rush J, Ellis DR (1997) Physical therapy for critically ill veterinary patients. II The musculo-skeletal system. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 19:803–807Google Scholar
  82. Markham A, Faulds D (1996) Ropivacaine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic use in regional anaesthesia. Drugs 52:429–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Martin BB, Klide AM (1987) Use of acupuncture for the treatment of chronic back pain in horses stimulation of acupuncture points with saline solution injections. J Am Vet Med Assoc 190:1177–1180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. McGeown D, Danbury TC, Waterman-Pearson AE, Kestin SC (1999) Effect of carprofen on lameness in broiler chickens. Vet Rec 144:668–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. McKellar QA, Delatour P, Lees P (1994) Stereospecific pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of carprofen in the dog. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 17:447–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. McMahon SB, Cafferty WBJ, Marchand F (2005) Immune and glial cell factors as pain mediators and modulators. Exp Neurol 125:444–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McMillan C, Livingston A, Clarke CR, Dowling PM, Taylor SM, Duke T, Terlinden R (2008) Pharmacokinetics of intravenous tramadol in dogs. Can J Vet Res 72:325–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Mellor D, Stafford KJ (2004) Animal welfare implications of neonatal mortality and morbidity in farm animals. Vet J 168:118–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mendl M, Burman O, Laughlin K, Paul E (2001) Animal memory and animal welfare. Anim Welf 10:S141–S159Google Scholar
  90. Mersky H, Bogduk H (eds) (1994) Classification of chronic pain: descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms. IASP, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  91. Millis DL, Levine D (1997) The role of exercise and physical modalities in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 27:913–930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Mittleman E, Gaynor JS (2000) A brief overview of the analgesic and immunologic effects of acupuncture in domestic animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 217:1201–1205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mizisin AP, Nelson RW, Sturges BK, Vernau KM, Lecouteur RA, Williams DC, Burgers ML, Shelton GD (2007) Comparable myelinated nerve pathology in feline and human diabetes mellitus. Acta Neuropathol 113:431–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mogil J (ed) (2004) The genetics of pain. IASP, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  95. Moon P, Suter CM (1993) Paravertebral thoracolumbar anesthesia in ten horses. Equine Vet J 25:304–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Morris TH (1995) Antibiotic therapeutics in laboratory animals. Lab Anim 29:16–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Morton AJ, Campbell NB, Gayle JM, Redding WR, Blikslager AT (2005) Preferential and non-selective cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors reduce inflammation during lipopolysaccharide-induced synovitis. Res Vet Sci 78:189–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mosley CAE (2005) Anesthesia and analgesia in reptiles. Sem Avian Exot Pet Med 14:243–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Murrell JC, Johnson CB (2006) Neurophysiological techniques to assess pain in animals. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 29:325–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Nolan AM (2000) Pharmacology of analgesic drugs. In: Flecknell P, Waterman-Pearson A (eds) Pain management in animals. Saunders, London, pp 21–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Nolan AM, Livingston A, Waterman AE (1986) The effects of alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonists on airway pressure in anaesthetised sheep. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 9:157–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nolan A, Livingston A, Morris R, Waterman A, Nolan A (1987a) Techniques for comparison of thermal and mechanical nociceptive stimuli in sheep. J Pharmacol Methods 17:39–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nolan A, Livingston A, Waterman A (1987b) Antinociceptive actions of alpha 2 adrenceptors in sheep. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 10:702–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nutt P (1962) Brachial plexus analgesia in the dog. Vet Rec 74:874–876Google Scholar
  105. Ogunleye DS (2001) Investigation of racial variation in the metabolism of tramadol. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 26:95–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Papich MG (2000) Pharmacologic consideration for opioid analgesic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 30:815–837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Paul-Murphy JR, Brunson DB, Miletic V (1999) Analgesic effects of butorphanol and buprenorphine in conscious African grey parrots. Am J Vet Res 60:1218–1221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Paul-Murphy JR, Hess JC, Fialkowski JP (2004) Pharmacokinetic properties of a single intra-muscular dose of buprenorphine in African grey parrots. J Avian Med Surg 18:224–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pippi NL, Lumb WV (1979) Objective tests of analgesic drugs in ponies. Am J Vet Res 40:1082–1086PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Pypendop BH, Ilkew JE (2008) Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its metabolite O-desmethyltramadol in cats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 31:52–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Raffa RB (2001) Pharmacology of oral combination analgesics. Rational therapy for pain. J Clin Pharm Ther 26:257–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Randall LO, Selitto JJ (1957) A method for the measurement of analgesic activity on inflamed tissue. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 111:409–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Rhudy JL, Meagher MW (2000) Fear and anxiety, divergent effects on human pain thresholds. Pain 84:65–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ritchie DM, Argentieri DC, Aparicio BL, Plante RK, Lau CY, Barbone AG (1995) Cytokine-modulating activity of tepoxalin, a new potential antirheumatic. Int J Immunopharmacol 17:805–812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Romans CW, Gordon WJ, Robinson DA, Evans R, Conzemius MG (2005) Effects of postoperative analgesic protocol on limb function following onychectomy in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 227:89–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Roughan JV (2008) Objective video analysis of pain in animals. In: Lascelles BDX (ed) Measuring nocioception and pain in non-human species: beyond the hot plate and paw pressure test. Proceedings of the IASP Special Interest Group, GlasgowGoogle Scholar
  117. Roughan JV, Flecknell PA (2003) Evaluation of a short-duration behavior based post-operative pain scoring system in rats. Eur J Pain 7:397–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Roughan JV, Flecknell PA (2004) Behavior based assessment on the duration of laprotomy induced abdominal pain and the analgesic effects of carprofen and buprenorphine in rats. Behav Pharmacol 15:461–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Roughan JV, Flecknell PA (2006) Training in behaviour based post-operative pain scoring in rats – an evaluation based on improved recognition of analgesic requirements. Appl Anim Behav Sci 96:327–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Scott LJ, Perry CM (2000) Tramadol, a review of its use in perioperative pain. Drugs 60:139–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sherrington CS (1906) The integrative action of the nervous system. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  122. Sicard JA (1901) Les injections medicamenteuses extra-durales par le voie sacre coccygienne. Com Rend Soc Biol 53:396Google Scholar
  123. Siegmund E, Cadmus R, Lu G (1957) A method for evaluating both narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics. Proc Soc Exp Biol (NY) 95:729–731Google Scholar
  124. Simmons DL, Botting RM, Hla T (2004) Cyclooxygenase isozymes: the biology of prostaglandin synthesis and inhibition. Pharmacol Rev 56:387–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Skarda RT (1996) Local and regional anesthetic and analgesic techniques. In: Thurman JC, Tranquilli WJ, Benson GJ (eds) Lumb and Jones Veterinary Anesthesia, 3rd edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 426–447Google Scholar
  126. Slingsby LS, Waterman-Pearson AE (1998) Comparison of pethidine, buprenorphine and ketoprofen for postoperative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy in the cat. Vet Rec 143:185–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Stevens CW, MacIver DN, Newman LC (2001) Testing and comparison of non-opioid analgesics in amphibians. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 40:23–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Symonds KD, MacAllister CG, Erkert RS, Payton ME (2006) Use of force plate analysis to assess the analgesic effects of etodolac in horses with navicular syndrome. Am J Vet Res 67:557–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Thurman JC, Tranquilli WJ, Benson GJ (1996) Lumb and Jones Veterinary Anesthesia, 3rd edn. Williams and Williams, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  130. Torske KE, Dyson DH (2000) Epidural analgesia and anesthesia. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 30:859–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Tung AS, Yaksh TL (1982) The antinociceptive effects of epidural opiates in the cat. Studies on the pharmacology and the effects of lipophilicity in spinal analgesia. Pain 12:343–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Vane JR (1971) Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs. Nature 231:232–235Google Scholar
  133. Vane J, Botting RM (1995) New insights into the mode of action of anti-inflammatory drugs. Inflammation Res 44:9–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Virtainen R, McDonald E (1985) Comparison of the effects of detomidine and xylazine on some alpha 2 adrenoceptor mediated responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Eur J Pharmacol 115:227–284Google Scholar
  135. Vollmer KO, Von Hodenberg A, Kolle EU (1986) Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of gabapentin in rat, dog and man. Arzneimittelforschung 36:830–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Walker JS, Carmody JJ (1986) Experimental pain in healthy human subjects: gender differences in nocioception and in response to ibuprofen. Anaesth Analg 86:1257–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wallace J, Reuter B, Cicala C, McKnight W, Grisham MB, Cirino G (1994) Novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug derivatives with markedly reduced ulcerogenic properties in the rat. Gastroenterology 107:173–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Waxman SG (2007) Nav 1.7, its mutations and the syndromes that they cause. Neurology 69:505–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Waxman AE, Robinson DE, Evans RB, Hulse DA, Innes JF, Conzemius MG (2008) Relationship between objective and subjective assessment of limb function in normal dogs with an experimentally induced lameness. Vet Surg 37:241–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Welsh EM, Gettingby G, Nolan AM (1993) Comparison of a visual analogue scale and numerical rating scale for assessment of lameness, using sheep as a model. Am J Vet Res 54:976–983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Winston ZH, He ZJ, Shenoy M, Xiao SY, Pasricha PJ (2005) Molecular and behavioural changes in a novel rat model of pancreatitis for the study of pain. Pain 117:214–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wolfensohn S, Lloyd M (1998) Handbook of laboratory animal management and welfare, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  143. Woolf CJ, Chong MS (1993) Pre-emptive analgesia, treating postoperative pain by preventing central sensitization. Anaesth Analg 77:293–299Google Scholar
  144. Woolfe G, McDonald A (1944) The evaluation of the analgesic action of pethidine hydrochloride (Demerol). J Pharmacol Exp Ther 80:300–307Google Scholar
  145. Wright M, McGrath CJ (1981) Physiologic and analgesic effects of acupuncture in the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 178:502–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Wright-Williams SL, Courade JP, Richardson CA, Roughan JV, Flecknell PA (2007) Effects of vasectomy surgery and meloxicam treatment on faecal corticosterone levels and behaviour in two strains of laboratory mouse. Pain 130:108–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Yazbek KVB, Fantoni DT (2005) Validity of a quality of life scale for dogs with signs of pain secondary to cancer. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:1354–1358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Yeary RA, Swanson W (1973) Aspirin doses for the cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 163:1177–1178PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Saskatchewan, Western College of Veterinary MedicineSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations