Advertisement

Microbial Degradation of Pesticides in Tropical Soils

  • Ziv Arbeli
  • Cilia L. Fuentes
Chapter
Part of the Soil Biology book series (SOILBIOL, volume 21)

Abstract

Although their use is at least as essential in tropical as in temperate zones, pesticides remain little studied as regards their fate and microbial degradation in tropical soils. To contribute to closing this gap, this review examines to what extent results from studies on pesticide microbial degradation in temperate zones can be extrapolated to the tropics. It is concluded that geographical distances or barriers are not expected to create profound differences between tropical and temperate soil microbial communities, although fine-tuning adaptation might exist. This suggests that environmental conditions, mainly temperature and humidity, are the principal factors contributing to a difference between pesticide degradation phenomena as they occur in soils from tropical and temperate zones. According to this hypothesis, the kinetics or metabolic pathways of microbial pesticide degradation would be similar in temperate and tropical environments that would themselves be similar with respect to temperature, humidity, and other parameters. The hypothesis also predicts that in the hot humid tropics, pesticide degradation is expected to occur faster than in temperate zones, whereas in cool tropical highlands or in arid tropical zones the degradation rate would be reduced to a level comparable to or even lower than that in temperate zones. Finally, it is proposed there that pesticide degradation rate in the tropics can be predicted by models developed in temperate climates, insofar as these models have been validated as applying to tropical countries.

Keywords

Microbial Community Microbial Degradation Temperate Zone Microbial Diversity Integrate Pest Management 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are thankful to Sebastian Reinhold Sørensen, Matthew Robert Alexander and Patrice Dion for their helpful comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by the Dirección de Investigación — Sede Bogotá (DIB) and the Escuela de Posgrados, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

References

  1. Abhilash PC, Singh N (2009) Pesticide use and application: an Indian scenario. J Hazard Mater 165:1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aerts R (1997) Climate, leaf litter chemistry and leaf litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems: a triangular relationship. Oikos 79:439–449Google Scholar
  3. Aislabie J, Bej AK, Ryburn J, Lloyd N, Wilkins A (2005) Characterization of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans HIM, an atrazine-degrading bacterium, from agricultural soil New Zealand. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 52:279–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen AP, Gillooly JF, Savage VM, Brown JH (2006) Kinetic effects of temperature on rates of genetic divergence and speciation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:9130–9135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alletto L, Coquet Y, Benoit P, Bergheaud V (2006) Effects of temperature and water content on degradation of isoproturon in three soil profiles. Chemosphere 64:1053–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Andrews JH, Harris RF (2000) The ecology and biogeography of microorganisms on plant surfaces. Annu Rev Phytopathol 38:145–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arbeli Z, Fuentes CL (2007) Accelerated biodegradation of pesticides: an overview of the phenomenon, its basis and possible solutions; and a discussion on the tropical dimension. Crop Prot 26:1733–1746Google Scholar
  8. Awasthi N, Ahuja R, Kumar A (2000) Factors influencing the degradation of soil-applied endosulfan isomers. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1697–1705Google Scholar
  9. Bailey SW (2004) Climate change and decreasing herbicide persistence. Pest Manag Sci 60:158–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bell T, Newman JA, Silverman BW, Turner SL, Lilley AK (2005) The contribution of species richness and composition to bacterial services. Nature 436:1157–1160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Belotte D, Curien JB, Maclean RC, Bell G (2003) An experimental test of local adaptation in soil bacteria. Evolution 57:27–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bending GD, Lincoln SD, Sørensen SR, Morgan JAW, Aamand J, Walker A (2003) In-field spatial variability in the degradation of the phenyl–urea herbicide isoproturon is the result of interactions between degradative Sphingomonas spp. and soil pH. Appl Environ Microbiol 69:827–834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berg B et al (1993) Litter mass loss rates in pine forests of Europe and Eastern United States: some relationship with climate and litter quality. Biogeochemistry 20:127–159Google Scholar
  14. Bhat MA, Tsuda M, Horiike K, Nozaki M, Vaidyanathan CS, Nakazawa T (1994) Identification and characterization of a new plasmid carrying genes for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetate from Pseudomonas cepacia CSV90. Appl Environ Microbiol 60:307–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bloomfield JP, Williams RJ, Gooddy DC, Cape JN, Guha P (2006) Impacts of climate change on the fate and behaviour of pesticides in surface and groundwater — a UK perspective. Sci Total Environ 369:163–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bocquene G, Franco A (2005) Pesticide contamination of the coastline of Martinique. Mar Pollut Bull 51:612–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Boltner D, Moreno-Morillas S, Ramos JL (2005) 16S rDNA phylogeny and distribution of lin genes in novel hexachlorocyclohexane-degrading Sphingomonas strains. Environ Microbiol 7:1329–1338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cáceres T, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2008) Degradation of fenamiphos in soils collected from different geographical regions: the influence of soil properties and climatic conditions. J Environ Sci Health B43:314–322Google Scholar
  19. Cai B, Han Y, Liu B, Ren Y, Jiang S (2003) Isolation and characterization of an atrazine-degrading bacterium from industrial wastewater in China. Lett Appl Microbiol 36:272–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cardillo M (1999) Latitude and rates of diversification in birds and butterflies. Proc R Soc Lond B 266:1221–1225Google Scholar
  21. Cardinale BJ, Srivastava DS, Duffy JE, Wright JP, Downing AL, Sankaran M, Jouseau C (2006) Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems. Nature 443:989–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carvalho FP (2006) Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety. Environ Sci Policy 9:685–692Google Scholar
  23. Carvalho FD, Nhan D, Zhong C, Tavares T, Klaine S (1998) Tracking pesticides in the tropics. IAEA bulletin 40:24–30. http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull403/ 40305692430.pdf. Accessed 6 Oct 2008Google Scholar
  24. Chen CC, McCarl BA (2001) An investigation of the relationship between pesticide usage and climate change. Clim Change 50:475–487Google Scholar
  25. Cho JC, Tiedje JM (2000) Biogeography and degree of endemicity of fluorescent Pseudomonas strains in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:5448–5465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cobley LS, Steele WM (1984) An introduction to the botany of tropical crops. Longman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Connor DJ (2008) Organic agriculture cannot feed the world. Field Crops Res 106:187–190Google Scholar
  28. Cook FJ, Orchard VA (2008) Relationships between soil respiration and soil moisture. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1013–1018Google Scholar
  29. Cooper J, Dobson H (2007) Pesticides and humanity: the benefits of using pesticides. Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, UKGoogle Scholar
  30. Cuervo JL (2007) Interacción del glifosato (Roundup®) con la biota del suelo y comportamiento de este herbicida en tres suelos del Tolima-Colombia, bajo condiciones controladas. Doctoral Thesis, Facultad Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede BogotáGoogle Scholar
  31. Davidson EA, Verchot LV, Cattânio JH, Ackerman IL, Carvalho JEM (2000) Effects of soil water content on soil respiration in forests and cattle pastures of eastern Amazonia. Biogeochemistry 48:53–69Google Scholar
  32. de Souza ML, Seffernick J, Martinez B, Sadowsky MJ, Wackett LP (1998) The atrazine catabolism genes atzABC are widespread and highly conserved. J Bacteriol 180:1951–1954PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dogra C et al (2004) Organization of lin genes and IS6100 among different strains of hexachlorcyclohexane degrading Sphingomonas paucimobilis strains: evidence of natural horizontal transfer. J Bacteriol 186:2225–2235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ecobichon DJ (2001) Pesticide use in developing countries. Toxicology 160:27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Eddleston M et al (2002) Pesticide poisoning in the developing world — a minimum pesticides list. Lancet 360:1163–1167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) (2007) Opinion on a request from EFSA related to the default Q10 value used to describe the temperature effect on transformation rates of pesticides in soil. EFSA J 622:1–32Google Scholar
  37. Ehrenfeld JG, Ravit B, Elgersma K (2005) Feedback in the plant–soil system. Annu Rev Env Resour 30:75–115Google Scholar
  38. FAO (2008) — FAOSTAT, ResourceSTAT-Pesticides Trade. http://www.faostat.fao.org/site/423/default.aspx#ancor. Accessed 13 Aug 2008
  39. Fenchel T (2003) Biogeography for bacteria. Science 301:295–296Google Scholar
  40. Fierer N (2008) Microbial biogeography: patterns in microbial diversity across space and time. In: Zengler K (ed) Accessing uncultivated microorganisms: From the environment to organisms and genomes and back. ASM Press, Washington, DC, pp 95–115Google Scholar
  41. Fierer N, Jackson R (2006) The diversity and biogeography of soil bacterial communities. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:626–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fierer N, Morse J, Berthrong S, Bernhardt ES, Jackson RB (2007) Environmental controls on the landscape-scale biogeography of stream bacterial communities. Ecology 88(9):2162–2173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fierer N, Liu Z, Rodríguez-Hernández M, Knight R, Henn M, Hernandez MT (2008) Short-term temporal variability in airborne bacterial and fungal populations. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:200–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Figueroa del Castillo L (2008) Potencial de degradación bacteriano de 14C glifosato en tres suelos del Tolima, Colombia sometidos a diferentes uso. M.Sc. Thesis, Facultad Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede BogotáGoogle Scholar
  45. Finlay BJ (2002) Global dispersal of free-living microbial eukaryote species. Science 296:1061–1063PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Foissner W (2006) Biogeography and dispersal of micro-organisms: a review emphasizing protists. Acta Protozool 45:111–136Google Scholar
  47. Freedonia Group (2005) World Pesticides to 2009 — demand and sales forecast, market share, market size, market leaders. Study no 1927Google Scholar
  48. Fuhrman JA, Steele JA, Hewson I, Schwalbach MS, Brown MV, Green JL, Brown JH (2008) A latitudinal diversity gradient in planktonic marine bacteria. PNAS 105:7774–7778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fulthorpe RR, Rhodes AN, Tiedje JM (2003) High levels of endemicity of 3-chlorobenzoate-degrading soil bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1620–1627Google Scholar
  50. Ghadiri H, Rose CW, Connell DW (1995) Degradation of organochlorine pesticides in soils under controlled environment and outdoor conditions. J Environ Manage 43:141–151Google Scholar
  51. Godoy-Vitorino F et al (2008) Bacterial community in the crop of the Hoatzin, a neotropical folivorous flying bird. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:5905–5912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Girvan MS, Campbell CD, Killham K, Prosser JI, Glover LA (2005) Bacterial diversity promotes community stability and functional resilience after perturbation. Environ Microbiol 7:301–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Graystona SJ, Griffith GS, Mawdsleyb JL, Campbella CD, Bardgettc RD (2001) Accounting for variability in soil microbial communities of temperate upland grassland ecosystems. Soil Biol Biochem 33:533–551Google Scholar
  54. Green JL, Bohannan BJM, Whitaker RJ (2008) Microbial biogeography: from taxonomy to traits. Science 320(5879):1039–1043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Griffin DW (2007) Atmospheric movement of microorganisms in clouds of desert dust and implications for human health. Clin Microbiol Rev 20:459–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hassan A (1994) Appraisal of overall program accomplishments. J Environ Sci Health B29:205–226Google Scholar
  57. Hector A, Bagchi R (2007) Biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality. Nature 448:188–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hector A et al (1999) Plant diversity and productivity experiments in European grasslands. Science 286:1123–1127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hill DS (2008) Pests of crops in warmer climates and their control. Springer, Netherlands, p 750Google Scholar
  60. Hillebrand H (2004) On the generality of the latitudinal diversity gradient. Am Nat 163:192–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Houot S, Topp E, Yassir A, Soulas G (2000) Dependence of accelerated degradation of atrazine on soil pH in French and Canadian soils. Soil Biol Biochem 32:615–625Google Scholar
  62. Jain V (1992) Disposing of pesticides in the third world. Environ Sci Technol 26:226–228Google Scholar
  63. Juo ASR, Franzluebbers K (2003) Tropical soils: Properties and management for sustainable agriculture. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Karlsson H et al (2000) Persistent chlorinated pesticides in air, water, and precipitation from the Lake Malawi area, southern Africa. Environ Sci Technol 34:4490–4495Google Scholar
  65. Kellman MC (1997) Tropical environments: The functioning and management of tropical ecosystems. Routledge, Florence, KYGoogle Scholar
  66. Kellogg CA, Griffin DW (2006) Aerobiology and the global transport of desert dust. Trends Ecol Evol 21:638–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kemmitta SJ et al (2008) Mineralization of native soil organic matter is not regulated by the size, activity or composition of the soil microbial biomass — a new perspective. Soil Biol Biochem 40:61–73Google Scholar
  68. Kiely T, Donaldson D, Grube A (2004) Pesticides industry sales and usage: 2000 and 2001 market estimates. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  69. Korpraditskul R, Korpraditskal V, Kuwatsuka S (1992) Degradation of the herbicide atrazine in five different Thai soils. J Pestic Sci 17:287–289Google Scholar
  70. Korpraditskul R, Katayama A, Kuwatsuka S (1993) Chemical and microbiological degradation of atrazine in Japanese and Thai soils. J Pestic Sci 18:77–83Google Scholar
  71. Laabs V, Amelung W, Pinto A, Zech W (2002) Fate of pesticides in tropical soils of Brazil under field conditions. J Environ Qual 31:256–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Lambais MR, Crowley DE, Cury JC, Büll RC, Rodrigues RR (2006) Bacterial diversity in tree canopies of the Atlantic Forest. Science 312:1917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Laskowski DA (1995) EPA guidelines for environmental fate studies: meaningful data for assessing exposure to pesticides. In: Leng ML, Leovey EMK, Zubkoff PL (eds) Agrochemical environmental fate: State of the art. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp 117–128Google Scholar
  74. Lavelle P, Blanchart E, Martin A, Martin S, Spain A (1993) A hierarchical model for decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems: application to soils of the humid tropics. Biotropica 25:130–150Google Scholar
  75. Lehman RG, Miller JR, Fontaine DD, Laskowski DD, Hunter JH, Cordes RC (1992) Degradation of a sulfonamide herbicide as a function of soil sorption. Weed Res 32:197–205Google Scholar
  76. Lighthart B (1984) Microbial aerosols: estimated contribution of combine harvesting to an airshed. Appl Environ Microbiol 47:430–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Linshi J, Nissinen A, Erhard M, Taskinen O (2003) Climatic effects on litter decomposition from arctic tundra to tropical rainforest. Global Change Biol 9:575–584Google Scholar
  78. Lozupone CA, Knight R (2007) Global patterns in bacterial diversity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:11436–11440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Marchant R et al (2008) Thermophilic bacteria in cool temperate soils: are they metabolically active or continually added by global atmospheric transport? Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 78:841–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Marschner P, Yang CH, Lieberei R, Crowley DE (2001) Soil and plant specific effects on bacterial community composition in the rhizosphere. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1437–1445Google Scholar
  81. Martiny JBH et al (2006) Microbial biogeography: putting microorganisms on the map. Nat Rev Microbiol 4:102–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Matthews G, Wiles T, Balegue P (2003) A survey of pesticide application in Cameroon. Crop Prot 22:707–714Google Scholar
  83. McGowan C, Fulthorpe R, Wright A, Tiedje JM (1998) Evidence for interspecies gene transfer in the evolution of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degraders. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:4089–4092PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Meentemeyer V (1978) Macroclimate and lignin control of litter decomposition rate. Ecology 59:465–472Google Scholar
  85. Melgarejo Prieto MR (2008) Determinación de residuos de 14C glifosato y de AMPA en tres suelos del Tolima sometidos a diferentes uso. M.Sc. Thesis, Facultad Agronomía, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede BogotáGoogle Scholar
  86. Mulbry WW, Karns JS (1989) Parathion hydrolase specified by the Flavobacterium opd gene – relationship between the gene and protein. J Bacteriol 171:6740–6746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Naeem S, Hahn DR, Schuurman G (2000) Producer–decomposer co-dependency influences biodiversity effects. Nature 403:762–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Oerke EC, Dehne HW (2004) Safeguarding production — losses in major crops and the role of crop protection. Crop Prot 23:275–285Google Scholar
  89. Ohkuma M (2008) Symbioses of flagellates and prokaryotes in the gut of lower termites. Trends Microbiol 16:345–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Oliver DP, Kookana RS, Quintana B (2005) Sorption of pesticides in tropical and temperate soils from Australia and the Philippines. J Agric Food Chem 53:6420–6425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Papke RT, Ramsing NB, Bateson MM, Ward DM (2003) Geographical isolation in hot spring cyanobacteria. Environ Microbiol 5:650–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Peñafiel W, Kammerbauer H (2001) Evaluación del uso y manejo de pesticidas en una zona subtropical del Alto Beni de Bolivia. Ecología en Bolivia 36:55–63Google Scholar
  93. Pietikäinen J, Pettersson M, Bååth E (2005) Comparison of temperature effects on soil respiration and bacterial and fungal growth rates. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 52:49–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Piutti S et al (2003) Isolation and characterisation of Nocardioides sp. SP12, an atrazine-degrading bacterial strain possessing the gene trzN from bulk and maize rhizosphere soil. FEMS Microbiol Lett 221:111–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Poelarends GJ, Kulakov LA, Larkin MJ, Vlieg JETV, Janssen DB (2000) Roles of horizontal gene transfer and gene integration in evolution of 1, 3 dichloropropene and 1, 2-dibromoethane degradative pathways. J Bacteriol 182:2191–2199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Pommier T et al (2007) Global patterns of diversity and community structure in marine bacterioplankton. Mol Ecol 16:867–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Racke KD, Skidmore MW, Hamilton DJ, Unsworth JB, Miyamoto J, Cohen SZ (1997) Pesticide fate in tropical soils. Pure Appl Chem 69:1349–1371Google Scholar
  98. Ramette A, Tiedje J (2007) Biogeography: an emerging cornerstone for understanding prokaryotic diversity, ecology, and evolution. Microb Ecol 53:197–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Reed HE, Martiny JBH (2007) Testing the functional significance of microbial composition in natural communities. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 62:161–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Rodríguez Cruz MS, Jones JE, Bending GD (2008) Study of the spatial variation of the biodegradation rate of the herbicide bentazone with soil depth using contrasting incubation methods. Chemosphere 73:1211–1215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rohde K (1992) Latitudinal gradients in species diversity: the search for the primary cause. Oikos 65:514–527Google Scholar
  102. Rousseaux S, Hartmann A, Soulas G (2001) Isolation and characterization of new Gram-negative and Gram-positive atrazine degrading bacteria from different French soils. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 36:211–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Sarkar SK et al (2008) Occurrence, distribution and possible sources of organochlorine pesticide residues in tropical coastal environment of India: an overview. Environ Int 34:1062–1071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Satsuma K (2006) Characterisation of new strains of atrazinedegrading Nocardioides sp. isolated from Japanese riverbed sediment using naturally derived river ecosystem. Pest Manag Sci 62:340–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Schade G (2005) Tropical soils and agriculture: nutrients, soil organic matter, and sustainable management practices. http://www.met.tamu.edu/class/atmo613/Tropical%20Soils%20and%20Agriculture.doc. Accessed 10 Nov 2008
  106. Seffernick JL, Wackett LP (2001) Rapid evolution of bacterial catabolic enzymes: a case study with atrazine chlorohydrolase. Biochemistry 40:12747–12753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Senior E, Bull T, Slater JH (1976) Enzyme evolution in a microbial community growing on herbicide Dalapon. Nature 263:476–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Serdar CM, Murdock DC, Rohde MF (1989) Parathion hydrolase gene from Pseudomonas diminuta MG: subcloning, complete nucleotide sequence, and expression of the mature portion of the enzyme in Escherichia coli. Biotechnology 7:1151–1155Google Scholar
  109. Shapir N, Mongodin EF, Sadowsky MJ, Daugherty SC, Nelson KE, Wackett LP (2007) Evolution of catabolic pathways: genomic insights into microbial s-triazine metabolism. J Bacteriol 189:674–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Sibanda T, Dobson HM, Cooper JF, Manyangarirwa W, Chiimba W (2000) Pest management challenges for smallholder vegetable farmers in Zimbabwe. Crop Protect 19:807–815Google Scholar
  111. Simon L, Spiteller M, Wallnofer PR (1992) Metabolism of fenamiphos in 16 soils originating from different geographic areas. J Agric Food Chem 40:312–317Google Scholar
  112. Smith LH, Liyanage JA, Watawala RC, Aravinna AGP, Kookana RS (2006) Degradation of the pesticides carbofuran and diazinon in tropical soils from Sri Lanka. CSIRO Land and Water Science Report 67/06, CSIRO, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  113. Somara S, Manavathi B, Tebbe C, Siddavattam D (2002) Localisation of identical organophosphorus pesticide degrading (opd) genes on genetically dissimilar indigenous plasmids of soil bacteria: PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the god gene from Flavobacterium balustinum. Indian J Exp Biol 40:774–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Specialists in Business Information (2008) Emerging trends and opportunities in the world pesticides market. Publication SB1928574Google Scholar
  115. Srivastava DS, Velland M (2005) Biodiversity–ecosystem function: is it relevant to conservation? Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 36:267–294Google Scholar
  116. Suett DL, Jukes AA, Parekh NR (1996) Non-specific influence of pH on microbial adaptation and insecticide efficacy in previously-treated field soils. Soil Biol Biochem 28:1783–1790Google Scholar
  117. Topp E, Zhu H, Nour SM, Houot S, Lewis M, Cuppels D (2000a) Characterization of an atrazine-degrading Pseudaminobacter sp. isolated from Canadian and French agricultural soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:2773–2782PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Topp E, Mulbry WM, Zhu H, Nour SM, Cuppels D (2000b) Characterization of s-triazine herbicide metabolism by a Nocardioides sp. isolated from agriculture soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 66:3134–3141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Tringe SG et al (2008) The airborne metagenome in an indoor urban environment. PLOS One 3:e1862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. van der Heijden MGA et al (1998) Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and productivity. Nature 396:69–72Google Scholar
  121. Walker A (1978) Simulation of the persistence of eight soil-applied herbicides. Weed Res 18:305–313Google Scholar
  122. Walker A, Eagle DJ (1983) Prediction of herbicide residues in soil for advisory purposes. Asp Appl Biol 4:503–509Google Scholar
  123. Walker A et al (1983) EWRS herbicide-soil working group: collaborative experiment on simazine persistence in soil. Weed Res 23:373–383Google Scholar
  124. Wertz S, Degrange V, Prosser JI, Poly F, Commeaux C, Guillaumaud N, Le Roux X (2007) Decline of soil microbial diversity does not influence the resistance and resilience of key soil microbial functional groups following a model disturbance. Environ Microbiol 9:2211–2219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Whitaker RJ, Grogan DW, Taylor JW (2003) Geographic barriers isolate endemic populations of hyperthermophilic Archaea. Science 301:976–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Whitfield J (2005) Biogeography: is everything everywhere? Science 310:960–961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Whitford F, Pike D, Hanger G, Burroughs F, Johnson B, Blessing A (2006) The benefits of pesticides: a story worth telling. Purdue University, Purdue Extension, West Lafayette, INGoogle Scholar
  128. Williamson S, Ball A, Pretty J (2008) Trends in pesticide use and drivers for safer pest management in four African countries. Crop Prot 27:1327–1334Google Scholar
  129. Wilson C, Tisdell C (2001) Why farmers continue to use pesticides despite environmental, health and sustainability costs. Ecol Econ 39:449–462Google Scholar
  130. Woodwell GM, Craig PP, Johnson HA (1971) DDT in the biosphere: where does it go? Science 174:1101–1107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. World Resources Institute (2008) Agriculture statistics pesticide use. http://www.nationmaster.com/red/graph/agr_pes_use-agriculture-pesticide-use&int=-1. Accessed 23 Nov 2008

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Facultad AgronomíaUniversidad Nacional de ColombiaBogotáColombia

Personalised recommendations