Organic Semiconductors of Phthalocyanine Compounds for Field Effect Transistors (FETs)

Part of the Structure and Bonding book series (STRUCTURE, volume 135)


Various functional phthalocyanines as well as their tetrapyrrole analogs, porphyrins, have been extensively studied as organic semiconductors since the first report of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) in 1986. The large conjugated π system, excellent photoelectric characteristics, intriguing and unique optical properties, high thermal and chemical stability, and most importantly the easy functionalization of phthalocyanines render them ideal organic semiconductor materials as active layers for OFETs. In this chapter, the semiconducting properties of monomeric phthalocyanines as well as monomeric porphyrins, bis(phthalocyaninato) rare earth double-deckers, and tris(phthalocyaninato) rare earth triple-deckers in terms of their semiconducting nature (p-type, n-type, or ambipolar), carrier mobility, and current modulation reported in the past two decades have been summarized. Theoretical studies toward understanding the relationship between molecular structures as well as molecular electronic structures of phthalocyanines and their semiconducting properties have also been included.


Field effect transistors (FETs) Organic semiconductor Phthalocyanine Porphyrin Tetrapyrrole 



Top contact/bottom gate


Bottom contact/bottom gate


Sandwich contact/bottom gate


Bottom contact/top gate


Pulse-radiolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity technique


Indium tin oxide




Glycidyl methacrylate


Poly(butyl methacrylate)
























Poly(amic acid)




















Monomeric phthalocyaninate metal complex


Metal free phthalocyanine


Vanadyl phthalocyanine


Titanyl phthalocyanine






Tetra-iso-propoxy-phthalocyaninato copper (II)


Copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt




2,9,16-tri(tert-butyl)-23-(10-hydroxydecyloxy) phthalocyanine


2,9,16-tri(tert-butyl)-23-(10-hydroxydecyloxy) copper phthalocyanine


Bis(phthalocyaninato) rare earth complex


Heteroleptic (phthalocyaninato) [2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy)-phthalocyaninato] rare earth double-decker complex


2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-porphyrinate metal complex








Nickel tetrabenzoporphyrin


Copper tetrabenzoporphyrin




Metal etioporphyrin-I




2,7,12,17-tetra-(n-propyl)-porphycene platinum




5,10,15,20-tetra-(n-butyl)-porphyrin platinum


Metal hexadecafluorophthalocyanine


Iron hexadecachlorinphthalocyanine


Copper hexadecacyanophthalocyanine


Phthalocyanato tin(IV) dichloride


Tin (IV) phthalocyanine oxide


α, α’-dihexylsexithiophene






2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl) bithiophene


Copper(II) phthalocyanine tetrakis(methyl pyridinium) chloride



The authors thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Education Ministry of China, University of Science and Technology Beijing, and Shandong University for financial support.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Science and Technology BeijingBeijingChina

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