The Gain of Overbooking

  • Georg Birkenheuer
  • André Brinkmann
  • Holger Karl
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5798)


This paper analyzes the effect of overbooking for scheduling systems in a commercial environment. In this scenario each job is associated with a release time and a finishing deadline as well as a fee for a successful execution and a penalty for violating the deadline. The core idea is to exploit overestimations of required job execution times, providing an opportunity to aggressively schedule additional jobs. The proposed probabilistic scheduler is based on histories of job execution times, device failure rates, and penalties for SLA service violations. This paper includes a theoretical background and a mathematical model of the overbooking approach and a simulative evaluation with a synthetic workload on a single-processor system.


Execution Time Release Time Schedule Strategy Late Start Time Bathtub Distribution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Battre, D., Hovestadt, M., Kao, O., Keller, A., Voss, K.: Increasing fault tolerance by introducing virtual execution environments. In: Proceedings of the 1. GI/ITG KuVS Fachgespräch Virtualisierung (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rothstein, M.: Or and the airline overbooking problem. Operations Research 33(2), 237–248 (1985)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Subramanian, J., Stidham, S., Lautenbacher Jr., C.J.: Airline yield management with overbooking, cancellations, and no-shows. Transportation Science 33(2), 147–167 (1999)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Feitelson, D., Jette, M.: Improved utilization and responsiveness with gang scheduling. In: Proceedings of the Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing: IPPS 1997 Workshop, Geneva, Switzerland (April 5, 1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Feitelson, D., Weil, A.: Utilization and predictability in scheduling the ibm sp2 with backfilling. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Parallel Processing Symposium (January 1998)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mu’alem, A., Feitelson, D.: Utilization, predictability, workloads, and user runtime estimates in scheduling the ibm sp 2 with backfilling. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 12(6), 529–543 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zotkin, D., Keleher, P.: Job-length estimation and performance in backfilling schedulers. In: Proceedings of the Eighth IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing HPDC, (January 1999)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tsafrir, D., Feitelson, D.: The dynamics of backfilling: solving the mystery of why increased inaccuracy may help. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Workload Characterization (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gibbons, R.: A historical application profiler for use by parallel schedulers. In: Feitelson, D.G., Rudolph, L. (eds.) IPPS-WS 1997 and JSSPP 1997. LNCS, vol. 1291. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Smith, W., Foster, I., Taylor, V.: Predicting application run times using historical information. In: Proceedings of the Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing JSSPP (January 1998)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tsafrir, D., Etsion, Y., Feitelson, D.: Modeling user runtime estimates. In: Feitelson, D.G., Frachtenberg, E., Rudolph, L., Schwiegelshohn, U. (eds.) JSSPP 2005. LNCS, vol. 3834, pp. 1–35. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tsafrir, D., Etsion, Y., Feitelson, D.: Backfilling using system-generated predictions rather than user runtime estimates. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems (TPDS), 789–803 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liberman, V., Yechiali, U.: On the hotel overbooking problem-an inventory system with stochastic cancellations. Management Science 24(11), 1117–1126 (1978)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Urgaonkar, B., Shenoy, P.J., Roscoe, T.: Resource overbooking and application profiling in shared hosting platforms. In: Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation, OSDI (2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Andrieux, A., Berry, D., Garibaldi, J., Jarvis, S., MacLaren, J., Ouelhadj, D., Snelling, D.: Open issues in grid scheduling. UK e-Science Report UKeS-2004-03 (April 2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hovestadt, M., Kao, O., Keller, A., Streit, A.: Scheduling in HPC resource management systems: Queuing vs. Planning. In: Feitelson, D.G., Rudolph, L., Schwiegelshohn, U. (eds.) JSSPP 2003. LNCS, vol. 2862, pp. 1–20. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Siddiqui, M., Villazón, A., Fahringer, T.: Grid allocation and reservation - grid capacity planning with negotiation-based advance reservation for optimized qos. In: Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE SC2006 Conference on High Performance Networking and Computing, p. 103 (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen, M., Wu, Y., Yang, G., Liu, X.: Efficiently rationing resources for grid and p2p computing. In: Jin, H., Gao, G.R., Xu, Z., Chen, H. (eds.) NPC 2004. LNCS, vol. 3222, pp. 133–136. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sulistio, A., Kim, K.H., Buyya, R.: Managing cancellations and no-shows of reservations with overbooking to increase resource revenue. In: Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid (CCGrid), pp. 267–276 (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nissimov, A., Feitelson, D.G.: Probabilistic backfilling. In: Frachtenberg, E., Schwiegelshohn, U. (eds.) JSSPP 2007. LNCS, vol. 4942, pp. 102–115. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Streit, A.: Self-tuning Job Scheduling Strategies for the Resource Management of HPC Systems and Computational Grids. PhD thesis, University of Paderborn (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georg Birkenheuer
    • 1
  • André Brinkmann
    • 1
  • Holger Karl
    • 1
  1. 1.Paderborn Center for Parallel Computing (PC2)University of PaderbornGermany

Personalised recommendations