Numerical Optimisation Techniques Applied to Evacuation Analysis

Conference paper

Summary

A common problem faced by fire safety engineers in the field of evacuation analysis concerns the optimal design of an arbitrarily complex structure in order to minimise evacuation times. How does the engineer determine the best solution? In this study we introduce the concept of numerical optimisation techniques to address this problem. The study makes use of the buildingEXODUS evacuation model coupled with classical optimisation theory including Design of Experiments (DoE) and Response Surface Models (RSM). We demonstrate the technique using a relatively simple problem of determining the optimal location for a single exit in a square room.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. Park, S. Gwynne, E.R. Galea, P. Lawrence, Validating the building EXODUS evacuation model using data from an unannounced trial evacuation. Proc. of 2nd Int. Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics Conference, Ed. E.R. Galea, CMS Press, Greenwich, UK, 2003, pp. 295–306. ISBN 1904521088. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Filippidis, E.R. Galea, S. Gwynne, P. Lawrence, Representing the influence of signage on evacuation behaviour within an evacuation model, Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, Vol 16, No 1, pages 37–73, 2006. DOI: 10.1177/1042391506054298. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments (6th edition), Wiley, New York, 2005. ISBN 0-471-48735-X, www.wiley.com/college/montgomery. MATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G.E.P. Box, W.G. Hunter, J.S. Hunter, Statistics for Experiments: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis, and Model Building, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1978. ISBN 0-471-09315-7. MATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    G.E.P. Box, N.R. Draper, Empirical Model-Building and Response Surfaces, Wiley, New York, 1987. MATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L.R. Foulds, Optimization Techniques: An Introduction, UTM (Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics), 1948. ISBN 0-387-90586-3. Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    VisualDOC Design Optimization Software, Version 1.0 Reference Manual, Vanderplaats Research and Development, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO, 1998. Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Xu, T. Reinikainen, W. Ren, A simulation-based multi-objective design optimization of electronic packaging under thermal cycling and bend loading. Proc. of EuroSimE 2003, IEEE Press, New York, 2003. Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Venter, J. Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Multidisciplinary optimization of a transport aircraft wing using particle swarm optimization, Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, Vol 26, pages 121–131, 2004. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Machado Tavares, E.R. Galea, Optimal positioning of exits to minimise egress time for a square room with one or two exits of equal size, submitted to Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, 2008. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fire Safety Engineering GroupUniversity of GreenwichLondonUK

Personalised recommendations