Analysis of Empirical Trajectory Data of Pedestrians
We investigate how the characteristics and dynamics of a crowd is changing when the crowd density is increased from a few pedestrians only, up to extremely high crowd densities. Video analysis of the crowd disaster in Mina, Kingdom of Saudi-Arabia, in 2006 gives an empirical base for further analysis which reveals two transitions of the flow; one transition from laminar flow to stop-and-go flow and a second transition to turbulent flow. Finally, an improved specification of the social-force model is suggested in order to explain some of the phenomena occurring in dense crowds.
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