X-Ray Magnetic Dichroism

Part of the Springer Proceedings in Physics book series (SPPHY, volume 133)


An introduction is given to the X-ray magnetic dichroism focussing on X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The standard analysis of XMCD spectra by using the sum rules is elucidated. Additionally, aspects of the experimental realization and the data analysis are presented. By means of experimental examples of light 3d metal films, rare earth single crystals, and Fe-porphyrin molecules, the assets and drawbacks of the XMCD technique are illustrated. It is shown that the comparison of ab initio calculated spectra to the experimental results can provide the magnetic properties of the samples if the standard analysis fails.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    S. Hüfner, Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences 82, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1995)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Rogalev, F. Wilhelm, N. Jaouen, J. Goulon, and J.-P. Kappler, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism: Historical Perspective and Recent Highlights ed. by E. Beaurepaire et al., Lecture Notes in Physis 697, (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2006) pp. 71Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heiko Wende, Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 2105 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Stöhr, K. Baberschke, R. Jaeger, R. Treichler and S. Brennan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 381 (1981)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.T. Chen, L.H. Tjeng, J. Kwo, H.L. Kao, P. Rudolf, F. Sette, and R.M. Fleming, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2543 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. van der Laan, B.T. Thole, G.A. Sawatzky, J.B. Goedkoop, J.C. Fuggle, J.-M. Esteva, R. Karnatak, J.P. Remeika, and H.A. Dabkowska, Phys. Rev. B 34, 6529 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B.T. Thole, G. van der Laan, G.A. Sawatzky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2086 (1985)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Goulon, C. Goulon-Ginet, A. Rogalev, V. Gotte, C. Malgrange, and C. Brouder, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 6394 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Goulon, A. Rogalev, C. Goulon-Ginet, G. Benayoun, L. Paolasini, C. Brouder, C. Malgrange, and P. A. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 4385 (2000)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Goulon, A. Rogalev, F. Wilhelm, C. Goulon-Ginet, P. Carra, D. Cabaret, and C. Brouder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 237401 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.L. Erskine and E.A. Stern, Phys. Rev. B 12, 5016 (1975)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. Schütz, W. Wagner, W. Wilhelm, P. Kienle, R. Zeller, R. Frahm, and G. Materlik, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 737 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    B.T. Thole, P. Carra, F. Sette and G. van der Laan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1943 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Carra, B.T. Thole, M. Altarelli and X. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 694 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C.T. Chen, Y.U. Idzerda, H.-J. Lin, N.V. Smith, G. Meigs, E. Chaban, G.H. Ho, E. Pellegrin and F. Sette, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 152 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.L. Ankudinov and J.J. Rehr, Phys. Rev. B 51, 1282 (1995)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. van der Laan, Phys. Rev. B 55, 8086 (1997)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. van der Laan, Hitchhiker’s Guide to Multiplet Calculations ed. by E. Beaurepaire et al., Lecture Notes in Physis 697, (Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 2006) pp.143Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Nakajima, J. Stöhr, Y.U. Idzerda, Phys. Rev. B 59, 6421 (1999)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Stöhr, NEXAFS spectroscopy, 1st edn. (Springer Berlin 1992), pp. 122Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Tröger, D. Arvanitis, K. Baberschke, H. Michaelis, U. Grimm and E. Zschech Phys. Rev. B 46, 3283 (1992)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Fink, Th. Müller-Heinzerling, B. Scheerer, W. Speier, F.U. Hillebrecht, J.C. Fuggle, J. Zaanen, and G.A. Sawatzky, Phys. Rev. B 32, 4899 (1985)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Schwitalla and H. Ebert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4586 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. van der Laan and B.T. Thole, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1977 (1988)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Ebert, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 1665 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    G. van der Laan, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 9, L259 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    E. Goering, Phil. Mag. 85, 2895 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Scherz, PhD thesis, Freie Universität Berlin (2004),http://www.dissertation.de/buch.php3?buch=3463
  29. 29.
    A. Scherz, H. Wende, C. Sorg, K. Baberschke, J. Minár, D. Benea, H. Ebert, Physica Scripta T115, 586 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Scherz, H. Wende, K. Baberschke, Appl. Phys. A 78, 843 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Scherz, H. Wende, K. Baberschke, J. Minár, D. Benea and H. Ebert, Phys. Rev. B 66, 184401-1 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Scherz, P. Poulopoulos, H. Wende, G. Ceballos and K. Baberschke, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 8760 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. Fnidiki, J. Juraszek, J. Teillet, N.H. Duc, T.M. Danh, C. KaabouchiMand Sella, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3311 (1998)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Scherz, E.K.U. Gross, H. Appel, C. Sorg, K. Baberschke, H. Wende, and K. Burke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 253006 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    H. Wende, Z. Li, A. Scherz, G. Ceballos, K. Baberschke, A. Ankudinov, J.J. Rehr, F. Wilhelm, A. Rogalev, D.L. Schlagel and T.A. Lograsso, J. Appl. Phys. 91, 7361 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A.L. Ankudinov, J.J. Rehr, H. Wende, A. Scherz, K. Baberschke, Europhys. Lett. 66, 441 (2004)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    X. Wang, T.C. Leung, B.N. Harmon and P. Carra, Phys. Rev. B 47, 9087 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    D.E. Hegland, S. Legvold, and F.H. Spedding, Phys. Rev. 131, 158 (1963)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    C. Sorg, PhD thesis, Freie Universität Berlin (2005),http://www.dissertation.de/buch.php3?buch=4610
  40. 40.
    C. Sorg, A. Scherz, K. Baberschke, H. Wende, F. Wilhelm, A. Rogalev, S. Chadov, J. Minár, and H. Ebert, Phys. Rev. B 75, 064428 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    M. Bernien, PhD thesis, Freie Universität Berlin (2005)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. Wende, M. Bernien, J. Luo, C. Sorg, N. Ponpandian, J. Kurde, J. Miguel, M. Piantek, X. Xu, Ph. Eckhold, W. Kuch, K. Baberschke, P. M. Panchmatia, B. Sanyal, P. M. Oppeneer and O. Eriksson, Nature Materials 6, 516 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Bernien, X. Xu, J. Miguel, M. Piantek, Ph. Eckhold, J. Luo, J. Kurde, W. Kuch, K. Baberschke, H. Wende and P. Srivastava, Phys. Rev. B 76, 214406 (2007)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    H. Dürr, T. Eimller, H.-J. Elmer, S. Eisebitt, M. Farle, W. Kuch, F. Matthes, H.-C. Mertins, P.M.Oppeneer, L. Plucinski, C.M. Schneider, H. Wende, W. Wurth, H. Zabel, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 45, 15 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    M. Bernien, J. Miguel, C. Weis, Md. E. Ali, J. Kurde, B. Krumme, P. M. Panchmatia, B. Sanyal, M. Piantek, P. Srivastava, K. Baberschke, P. M. Oppeneer, O. Eriksson, W. Kuch, and H. Wende, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 047202 (2009)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fachbereich Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE)Universität Duisburg-EssenDuisburgGermany

Personalised recommendations