Authentic Time-Stamps for Archival Storage

  • Alina Oprea
  • Kevin D. Bowers
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5789)

Abstract

We study the problem of authenticating the content and creation time of documents generated by an organization and retained in archival storage. Recent regulations (e.g., the Sarbanes-Oxley act and the Securities and Exchange Commission rule) mandate secure retention of important business records for several years. We provide a mechanism to authenticate bulk repositories of archived documents. In our approach, a space efficient local data structure encapsulates a full document repository in a short (e.g., 32-byte) digest. Periodically registered with a trusted party, these commitments enable compact proofs of both document creation time and content integrity. The data structure, an append-only persistent authenticated dictionary, allows for efficient proofs of existence and non-existence, improving on state-of-the-art techniques. We confirm through an experimental evaluation with the Enron email corpus its feasibility in practice.

Keywords

time-stamping regulatory compliance archival storage authenticated data structures 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anagnostopoulos, A., Goodrich, M., Tamassia, R.: Persistent authenticated dictionaries and their applications. In: Davida, G.I., Frankel, Y. (eds.) ISC 2001. LNCS, vol. 2200, pp. 379–393. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bayer, D., Haber, S., Stornetta, W.: Improving the efficiency and reliability of digital time-stamping. In: Sequences II: Methods in Communication, Security, and Computer Science, pp. 329–334 (1993)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benaloh, J., de Mare, M.: Efficient broadcast time-stamping. Technical report TR-MCS-91-1, Clarkson University, Departments of Mathematics and Computer Science (1991)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blibech, K., Gabillon, A.: CHRONOS: An authenticated dictionary based on skip lists for time-stamping systems. In: Proc. Workshop on Secure Web Services, pp. 84–90. ACM, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blibech, K., Gabillon, A.: A new time-stamping scheme based on skip lists. In: Gavrilova, M.L., Gervasi, O., Kumar, V., Tan, C.J.K., Taniar, D., Laganá, A., Mun, Y., Choo, H. (eds.) ICCSA 2006. LNCS, vol. 3982, pp. 395–405. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buldas, A., Laud, P.: New linking schemes for digital time-stamping. In: Proc. 1st International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ICISC), pp. 3–13. Korea Institute of Information Security and Cryptology, KIISC (1998)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Buldas, A., Laud, P., Lipmaa, H.: Accountable certificate management using undeniable attestations. In: Proc. 7th ACM Conference on Computer and Communication Security (CCS), pp. 9–17. ACM, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buldas, A., Laud, P., Lipmaa, H., Villemson, J.: Time-stamping with binary linking schemes. In: Krawczyk, H. (ed.) CRYPTO 1998. LNCS, vol. 1462, pp. 486–501. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buldas, A., Laud, P., Saarepera, M., Villemson, J.: Universally composable time-stamping schemes with audit. In: Zhou, J., López, J., Deng, R.H., Bao, F. (eds.) ISC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3650, pp. 359–373. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buldas, A., Laud, P., Schoenmakers, B.: Optimally efficient accountable time-stamping. In: Imai, H., Zheng, Y. (eds.) PKC 2000. LNCS, vol. 1751, pp. 293–305. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Camenisch, J., Lysyanskaya, A.: Dynamic accumulators and application to efficient revocation of anonymous credentials. In: Yung, M. (ed.) CRYPTO 2002. LNCS, vol. 2442, pp. 61–76. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cohen, W.: Enron email dataset, http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~enron
  13. 13.
    Crosby, S., Wallach, D.: Efficient data structures for tamper evident logging. In: Proc. 18th USENIX Security Symposium, USENIX (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Driscoll, J.R., Sarnak, N., Sleator, D.D., Tarjan, R.E.: Making data structures persistent. Journal of Computer and System Sciences 38(1), 86–124 (1989)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Goodrich, M., Papamanthou, C., Tamassia, R.: On the cost of persistence and authentication in skip lists. In: Demetrescu, C. (ed.) WEA 2007. LNCS, vol. 4525, pp. 94–107. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goodrich, M., Papamanthou, C., Tamassia, R., Triandopoulos, N.: Athos: Efficient authentication of outsourced file systems. In: Proc. Information Security Conference (ISC), pp. 80–96 (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goodrich, M., Tamassia, R.: Efficient authenticated dictionaries with skip lists and commutative hashing. technical report, Johns Hopkins Information Security Institute (1991), http://www.cs.jhu.edu/~goodrich/cgc/pubs/hashskip.pdf
  19. 19.
    Goodrich, M., Tamassia, R., Hasic, J.: An efficient dynamic and distributed cryptographic accumulator. In: Bertrand, G., Imiya, A., Klette, R. (eds.) Digital and Image Geometry. LNCS, vol. 2243, pp. 372–388. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goodrich, M., Tamassia, R., Schwerin, A.: Implementation of an authenticated dictionary with skip lists and commutative hashing. In: DARPA Information Survivability Conference and Exposition II (DISCEX II), pp. 68–82. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (1991)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haber, S., Stornetta, W.S.: How to time-stamp a digital document. Journal of Cryptology 3(2), 99–111 (1991)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Huang, L., Hsu, W.W., Zheng, F.: CIS: Content immutable storage for trustworthy record keeping. In: Proc. of the Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies (MSST). IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2006)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Knuth, D.E.: The art of computer programming, vol. 3. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1973)MATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kocher, P.: On certificate revocation and validation. In: Hirschfeld, R. (ed.) FC 1998. LNCS, vol. 1465, pp. 951–980. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lukose, R.M., Lillibridge, M.: Databank: An economics based privacy preserving system for distributing relevant advertising and content. Technical report HPL-2006-95, HP Laboratories (2006)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maniatis, P., Baker, M.: Enabling the archival storage of signed documents. In: Proc. First USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST), pp. 31–45. USENIX (2002)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maniatis, P., Baker, M.: Secure history preservation through timeline entanglement. In: Proc. 11th USENIX Security Symposium, pp. 297–312. USENIX (2002)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Merkle, R.: A cerified digital signature. In: Brassard, G. (ed.) CRYPTO 1989. LNCS, vol. 435, pp. 218–238. Springer, Heidelberg (1990)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Micali, S., Rabin, M., Kilian, J.: Zero-knowledge sets. In: Proc. 44th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS). IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Naor, M., Nissim, K.: Certificate revocation and certificate update. In: Proc. 7th USENIX Security Symposium, USENIX (1998)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Oprea, A., Bowers, K.: Authentic time-stamps for archival storage (2009); Available from the Cryptology ePrint ArchiveGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sion, R.: Strong WORM. In: Proc. of the 28th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2008)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yumerefendi, A., Chase, J.: Strong accountability for network storage. In: Proc. 6th USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST). USENIX (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alina Oprea
    • 1
  • Kevin D. Bowers
    • 1
  1. 1.RSA LaboratoriesCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations