Advertisement

Toward a Self-referential Collective Intelligence Some Philosophical Background of the IEML Research Program

  • Pierre Lévy
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5796)

Abstract

The IEML research program promotes a radical innovation in the notation and processing of semantics. IEML (Information Economy MetaLanguage) is a regular language that provides new methods for semantic interoperability, semantic navigation, collective categorization and self-referential collective intelligence. This research program is compatible with the major standards of the Web of data and is in tune with the current trends in social computing.

The paper explains the philosophical relevance of this new language, including the role of media and symbolic systems in human cognition, the hope of a scientific revolution in humanities and the perspective of a leap in human collective intelligence thank to its possible self-reference in the mirror of cyberspace.

Keywords

collective intelligence IEML semantic space semantic tagging semantic interoperability metalanguage Web of data philosophy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Auroux, S.: La Révolution technologique de la grammatisation. Mardaga, Liège (1994)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aristotle: On Interpretation. Translated by Edghill, E. M., http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/interpretation.1.1.html
  3. 3.
    Yochai, B.: The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. Yale UP, New Haven (2006)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tim, B.-L.: Weaving the Web. Harper, San Francisco (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jean, B.: L’Ecriture la raison et les Dieux. Gallimard, Paris (1987)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Geoffrey, B.: Memory Practices in the Sciences. MIT Press, Cambridge (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Michel, C. (dir.): La Science et ses réseaux. Genèse et circulation des faits scientifiques. La Découverte, Paris (1989)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mary, C.: The Craft of Thought, Meditation, Rhetoric and the Making of Images, 400, 1200. Cambridge UP, New York (2000)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Manuel, C.: The information Age. Blackwell, Cambridge (1996, 1997, 1998)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jean-Pierre, C.: Neuronal Man: The Biology of Mind. Pantheon Books, NY (1985)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Noam, C., Schützenberger, M.P.: The algebraic theory of context free languages. In: Braffort, P., Hirschberg, D. (eds.) Computer Programming and Formal Languages, pp. 118–161. North Holland, Amsterdam (1963)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Henri, B.: Matière et mémoire. Alcan, Paris (1908); 1st edn. (1896)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kimiz, D.: Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice. Elsevier, NY (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martin, D.: Engines of Logic: Mathematicians and the Origin of the Computer. Norton & Company, NY (2000)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    De Libera, A.: La Querelle des universaux, De Platon à la fin du Moyen-Age. Seuil, Paris (1996)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Christo, D., Xu, J., Dicheva, D., Zhang, J.: A Study on Community Formation in Collaborative Tagging Systems. In: Proceedings of the IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence, Sydney (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Douglas, E.: Augmenting Human Intellect, Technical Report. Stanford Research Institute (1962)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gerard, E.: Neural Darwinism. Basic Books, NY (1987)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Elisabeth, E.: The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1983)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Feigenbaum, L., et al.: The semantic Web in Action. Scientific American, pp. 90–97 (December 2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Christiane, F. (ed.): Preface by George Miller, Wordnet, An Electronic Lexical Database. MIT Press, Cambridge (1998)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jack, G.: The Domestication of the Savage Mind. Cambridge UP, New York (1977)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jack, G.: The Logic of Writing and the Organization of Society. Cambridge UP, New York (1987)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mark, G.: The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology 78, 1360–1380 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harry, H., Valentin, R., Shepherd, H.: The Complex Dynamics of Collaborative Tagging. In: Proceedings of the16th International WWW Conference, pp. 211–220 (2007)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Havelock, E.A.: The Muse Learns to Write, Reflections on Orality and Litteracy from Antiquity to the Present. Yale UP, New Haven (1988)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jim, H., Dean, A.: Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist. Morgan Kaufmann, Burlington (2008)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hutchins, E.: Cognition in the Wild. MIT Press, Cambridge (1995)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Harold, I.: Empire and Communication. Toronto UP (1950)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Julian, J.: The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind. Houghton Mifflin, Boston (1976)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gottlob, F.: Geach, P., Black, M. (eds.): Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege. Blackwell, Oxford (1952)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Epaminondas, K.: On the Notion of Collective Intelligence: Opportunity or Challenge? In: Inter. Journal on Organisational and Collective Intelligence (IJOCI), vol. 1(1). Idea Group Publishing, USA (2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Robert, K.: The Nothing That Is, a Natural History of Zero. Oxford UP (1999)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Khare, R.: Microformats: the next (small) thing on the semantic Web? IEEE Internet Computing 10(1), 68–75 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alexandre, K.: From the Closed World to the Infinite Universe. Harper, NY (1958)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bruno, L.: Science in Action. Harvard UP, Cambridge (1987)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Claude, L.-S.: La pensée sauvage. Plon, Paris (1962); The Savage Mind. Chicago UP (1966)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pierre, L.: La Machine Univers. Création, cognition et culture informatique. La Découverte, Paris (1987)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pierre, L.: Les Technologies de l’intelligence. L’avenir de la pensée à l’ère informatique. La Découverte, Paris (1990)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pierre, L., Michel, A. (preface of Michel Serres): Les Arbres de connaissances. La Découverte, Paris (1992)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pierre, L.: De la programmation considérée comme un des beaux-arts. La Découverte, Paris (1992)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pierre, L.: L’Intelligence collective. Pour une anthropologie du cyberespace. La Découverte, Paris (1994); Collective Intelligence: Mankind’s Emerging World in Cyberspace. Perseus Books, Cambridge (1997)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pierre, L.: Qu’est-ce que le virtuel? La Découverte, Paris (1998); Becoming Virtual. Reality in the Digital Age. Plenum Trade, NY (1998) Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pierre, L.: Cyberculture. Odile Jacob, Paris (1997); Cyberculture. University of Minnesota Press (2001) Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pierre, L.: World Philosophie: le marché, le cyberespace, la conscience. Odile Jacob, Paris (2000)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pierre, L.: Cyberdémocratie: Essai de philosophie politique. Odile Jacob, Paris (2002)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pierre, L.: Société du savoir et développement humain. In: Le Canada et la société des savoirs, sous la direction de Patrick Imbert, CR Université d’Ottawa: Canada, enjeux sociaux et culturels dans une société du savoir, pp. 115–175 (2007)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pierre, L.: Algebraic Structure of IEML Semantic Space. CI Lab Technical Report (2009), http://www.ieml.org/spip.php?article152
  49. 49.
    Pierre, L.: From Social Computing to Reflexive Collective Intelligence: the IEML Research Program. In: Kapetanios, E., Koutrika, G. (eds.) Information Sciences, Special Issue on Collective Intelligence. Elsevier, Amsterdam (to be published, 2009)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    L’espace sémantiqueGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Charlene, L., Josh, B.: Groundswell. Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies. Harvard Business Press, Cambridge (2008)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Logan Robert, K.: The Alphabet Effect. Hampton Press, Cresskill (2004); 1st edn. Wm. Morrow, New York (1986)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Logan Robert, K.: The Extended Mind: The Emergence of Language, the Human Mind and Culture. U. of Toronto Press (2007)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lev, M.: The Language of New Media. MIT Press, Cambridge (2001)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Marshall, M.: The Gutemberg Galaxy. University of Toronto Press (1962)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Marshall, M.: Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. New American Library, NY (1964)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Morey, D., Maybury, M., Thuraisingham, B. (eds.): Knowledge Management, Classic and Contemporary Works. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Steven, N.: A perspective on the Quest for Global Knowledge Interchange. In: Jack, P., Sam, H. (eds.) Foreword by Douglas Engelbart, XML Topic Maps. Creating and Using Topic Maps for the Web, pp. 31–50. Addison Wesley, Reading (2002)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Nonaka, I., Takeuchi, H.: The Knowledge-creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. Oxford UP, NY (1995)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Walter, O.: Orality and Litteracy, The Technologizing of the Word. Methuen, London (1982)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Claude, P.: Les Mots, les concepts et les choses, la sémantique de Guillaume d’ Occam et le nominalisme d’ aujourd’ hui. Bellarmin-Vrin, Paris-St Laurent (Qc) (1992)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Corina, P.: An Empirical Analysis of the Creation, Use and Adoption of Social Computing Applications. European Commission, Joint Research Centre and Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (2008)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Charles, P.: The Essential Peirce: Selected Philosophical Writings. Indiana UP (1998)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    François, R.: La triade sémiotique, le trivium et la sémantique linguistique. Nouveaux actes sémiotiques 9, 54 (1990)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ferdinand, S.: Cours de linguistique générale. Payot, Lausanne-Paris (1916)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Clay, S.: Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. Penguin (2008)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gene, S.: Tagging: People-powered Metadata for the Social Web. Peachpit New Riders, Berkeley (2007)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
  69. 69.
    James, S.: The Wisdom of the Crowds. Random House, London (2004)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Elaine, S.: The Intellectual Foundation of Information Organization. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Don, T., Williams, A.D.: Wikinomics, How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. Portfolio (2007)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mark, T. (ed.): Collective Intelligence: Creating a Prosperous World at Peace. EIN Press, Oakton (2008)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Allan, T.: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem. Proc. London Math. Soc. 42(2), 230–265 (1936)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Von Neumann, J.: First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, Contract No. W-670-ORD-492, Moore School of Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Penn., Philadelphia, pp. 383–392 (June 30, 1945); Reproduced (partly) in Randell, Brian, Origins of Digital Computers: Selected Papers, pp. 383-392. Springer, Heidelberg (1982)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    David, W.: Everything Is Miscellaneous: The Power of the New Digital Disorder. Henri Holt and Cie, USA (2007)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Barry, W.: Computer Networks as Social Networks. Science 293, 2031–2034 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Etienne, W.: Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge UP, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Frances, Y.: The Art of Memory. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1974)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Olivier, Z.: Le Management de l’intelligence collective, M2 edns., Paris (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre Lévy
    • 1
  1. 1.Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, Canada Research Chair in Collective IntelligenceUniversity of OttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations