First Digit Law and Its Application to Digital Forensics

(Invited Paper)
  • Yun Q. Shi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5450)


Digital data forensics, which gathers evidence of data composition, origin, and history, is crucial in our digital world. Although this new research field is still in its infancy stage, it has started to attract increasing attention from the multimedia-security research community. This lecture addresses the first digit law and its applications to digital forensics. First, the Benford and generalized Benford laws, referred to as first digit law, are introduced. Then, the application of first digit law to detection of JPEG compression history for a given BMP image and detection of double JPEG compressions are presented. Finally, applying first digit law to detection of double MPEG video compressions is discussed. It is expected that the first digit law may play an active role in other task of digital forensics. The lesson learned is that statistical models play an important role in digital forensics and for a specific forensic task different models may provide different performance.


JPEG Compression Digital Forensic Generalize Laplacian Distribution Double JPEG Compression JPEG Quantization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yun Q. Shi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

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