Video Watermarking Based on Spatio-temporal JND Profile
As digital multimedia become easier to copy, exchange and modify, digital watermarking is becoming more and more important for protecting the authenticity of multimedia. The most important properties of digital watermarking techniques are robustness, imperceptibility and complexity. In this paper, a video watermarking scheme based on spatio-temporal just noticeable difference (JND) profile of human visual system (HVS) is presented. The JND profile is used to adaptively adjust the energy of the watermark during embedding. Hence, a good balance between imperceptibility and robustness is obtained. Moreover, the complete watermarking procedure in spatial domain is easy to perform. Firstly, the original video frames are divided into 3D-blocks. Spatial JND profile for motionless block and spatio-temporal JND profile for fast-motion block are estimated respectively. Then, an identical watermark is embedded in motionless block utilizing the spatial JND of HVS. Independent watermarks are embedded in fast-motion block by exploiting the spatio-temporal JND of HVS. Experimental results show the watermarked frames are indistinguishable from the original frames subjectively and the proposed video watermarking scheme is robust against the attacks of additive Gaussian noise, frame dropping, frame averaging, filtering and lossy compression.
KeywordsSpatio-temporal JND profile human visual system (HVS) video watermarking
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