Formal Analysis of Two Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocols

  • David M. Williams
  • Helen Treharne
  • Anthony T. S. Ho
  • Adrian Waller
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5450)


In this paper we demonstrate how the formal model constructed in our previous work [1], can be modified in order to analyse additional Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocols, identifying which specific sections of the CSP scripts remain identical and which require modification. First, we model the protocol proposed by Memon and Wong [2], an examplar of the Offline Watermarking Authority (OFWA) Model, defined in the framework by Poh and Martin [3]. Second, we model the Shao protocol [4] as an example of a protocol fitting the Online Watermarking Authority (ONWA) Model. Our analysis of the protocols reaffirms the unbinding attack described by Lei et al.[5] on the Memon and Wong protocol and we identify a new unbinding attack on the protocol proposed by Shao.


Deductive System Digital Watermark Communicate Sequential Process Protocol Model Cryptographic Primitive 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Williams
    • 1
  • Helen Treharne
    • 1
  • Anthony T. S. Ho
    • 1
  • Adrian Waller
    • 2
  1. 1.University of SurreyGuildfordUK
  2. 2.Thales Research and Technology (UK) Ltd.ReadingUK

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