Supraliminal Audio Steganography: Audio Files Tricking Audiophiles

  • Heather Crawford
  • John Aycock
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5806)


A supraliminal channel is one in which the secret message is encoded in the semantic content of a cover object, and that is robust against an active warden. Such channels frequently have a very low embedding rate and therefore are unsuitable for more than simply exchanging steganographic public keys. This paper introduces a proof-of-concept supraliminal channel that uses WAV files to provide a high-bitrate method of embedding information in common media.


Ambient Noise Secret Message Cover Object Object Music Midi File 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Simmons, G.J.: The Prisoners’ Problem and the Subliminal Channel. In: Chaum, D. (ed.) Advances in Cryptology 1981 - 1997, pp. 51–67. Plenum Press, New York (1984)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Johnson, N.F., Duric, Z., Jajodia, S.: Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking - Attacks and Countermeasures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Craver, S.: On Public-Key Steganography in the Presence of an Active Warden. In: Aucsmith, D. (ed.) IH 1998. LNCS, vol. 1525, pp. 355–368. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Craver, S., Li, E., Yu, J., Atakli, I.: A Supraliminal Channel in a Videoconferencing Application. In: Solanki, K., Sullivan, K., Madhow, U. (eds.) IH 2008. LNCS, vol. 5284, pp. 283–293. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bergmair, R., Katzenbeisser, S.: Content-Aware Steganography: About Lazy Prisoners and Narrow-Minded Wardens. In: Camenisch, J.L., Collberg, C.S., Johnson, N.F., Sallee, P. (eds.) IH 2006. LNCS, vol. 4437, pp. 109–123. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cvejic, N., Seppanen, T.: Increasing the Capacity of LSB-based Audio Steganography. In: Proceedings of 2002 IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, pp. 336–338 (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Inoue, D., Matsumoto, T.: A Scheme of Standard MIDI Files Steganography and Its Evaluation. In: Delp III, E.J., Wong, P.W. (eds.) Proceedings of SPIE Security and Watermarking of Multimedia, vol. 4675, pp. 194–205. SPIE, San Jose (2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Adli, A., Nakao, Z.: Three Steganography Algorithms for MIDI Files. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, vol. 4, pp. 2401–2404. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    TeraMedia: High-quality sound effects and loops. Webpage (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Josefsson, S.: Base16, Base32, and Base64 Encoding: Request for Comments 3548, Network Working Group (July 2003), (last checked January 16, 2009)
  11. 11.
    Mazzoni, D.: Audacity: Free Audio Editor and Recorder (January 2009), (last checked January 16, 2009)
  12. 12.
    Lam, T.T., Karam, L.J., Bazzi, R.A., Aboudsleman, G.P.: Reduced-Delay Selective ARQ for Low Bit-Rate Image and Multimedia Data Transmission. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) 2005, vol. 2, pp. 309–312. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bhattacharrya, D., Nandi, S.: An Efficient Class of SEC-DED-AUED Codes. In: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms, and Networks (I-SPAN), pp. 410–416. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (1997)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heather Crawford
    • 1
  • John Aycock
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations