Cervical Vertebrae Tracking in Video-Fluoroscopy Using the Normalized Gradient Field
For patients with neck problems valuable functional and diagnostic information can be obtained from a fluoroscopy video of a flexion-extension movement of the cervical spine. In most cases physicians have to manually extract the vertebrae, making the analysis of these video sequences tedious and time consuming. In this paper we propose an automatic fast and precise method for tracking cervical vertebrae. Our method relies only on a rough selection of template areas of each vertebra in a single frame of the video sequence. Compared to existing automated methods, no contours need to be extracted and no vertebra segmentation is required. Tracking is done with a normalized gradient field, using only the gradient orientations as features. Experimental results show that the algorithm is robust and able to track the vertebrae accurately even if they are partially occluded or if a disc prosthesis is present.
KeywordsCervical Spine Video Sequence Cervical Vertebra Consecutive Frame Gradient Orientation
Supplementary material (4,350 KB)
- 1.van Mameren, H., Drukker, J., Sanches, H., Beursgens, J.: Cervical spine motion in the sagittal plane (i) range of motion of actually performed movements, an x-ray cinematographic study. Eur. J. Morphol. 28(1), 47–68 (1990)Google Scholar
- 3.Howe, B., Gururajan, A., Sari-Sarraf, H., Long, L.R.: Hierarchical segmentation of cervical and lumbar vertebrae using a customized generalized hough transform and extensions to active appearance models. In: Proc. 6th IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation, March 28–30, 2004, pp. 182–186 (2004)Google Scholar
- 6.Chaitanya, B.: Segmentation of radiographs of cervical spine using level sets. Master’s thesis, Texas Tech University (2006)Google Scholar