Differential Cluster Analysis

  • Lejla Batina
  • Benedikt Gierlichs
  • Kerstin Lemke-Rust
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5747)

Abstract

We propose a new technique called Differential Cluster Analysis for side-channel key recovery attacks. This technique uses cluster analysis to detect internal collisions and it combines features from previously known collision attacks and Differential Power Analysis. It captures more general leakage features and can be applied to algorithmic collisions as well as implementation specific collisions. In addition, the concept is inherently multivariate. Various applications of the approach are possible: with and without power consumption model and single as well as multi-bit leakage can be exploited. Our findings are confirmed by practical results on two platforms: an AVR microcontroller with implemented DES algorithm and an AES hardware module. To our best knowledge, this is the first work demonstrating the feasibility of internal collision attacks on highly parallel hardware platforms. Furthermore, we present a new attack strategy for the targeted AES hardware module.

Keywords

Differential Cluster Analysis Side-channel Cryptanalysis Collision Attacks Differential Power Analysis AES Hardware 

References

  1. 1.
    Efficient Implementation of the Rijndael SBox, http://www.comms.scitech.susx.ac.uk/fft/crypto/rijndael-sbox.pdf
  2. 2.
    Batina, L., Gierlichs, B., Lemke-Rust, K.: Comparative Evaluation of Rank Correlation Based DPA on an AES Prototype Chip. In: Wu, T.-C., Lei, C.-L., Rijmen, V., Lee, D.-T. (eds.) ISC 2008. LNCS, vol. 5222, pp. 341–354. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Biryukov, A., Bogdanov, A., Khovratovich, D., Kasper, T.: Collision Attacks on AES-Based MAC: Alpha-MAC. In: Paillier, P., Verbauwhede, I. (eds.) CHES 2007. LNCS, vol. 4727, pp. 166–180. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Biryukov, A., Khovratovich, D.: Two new techniques of side-channel cryptanalysis. In: Paillier, P., Verbauwhede, I. (eds.) CHES 2007. LNCS, vol. 4727, pp. 195–208. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bogdanov, A.: Improved Side-Channel Collision Attacks on AES. In: Adams, C., Miri, A., Wiener, M. (eds.) SAC 2007. LNCS, vol. 4876, pp. 84–95. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bogdanov, A.: Multiple-Differential Side-Channel Collision Attacks on AES. In: Oswald, E., Rohatgi, P. (eds.) CHES 2008. LNCS, vol. 5154, pp. 30–44. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bogdanov, A., Kizhvatov, I., Pyshkin, A.: Algebraic Methods in Side-Channel Collision Attacks and Practical Collision Detection. In: Chowdhury, D.R., Rijmen, V., Das, A. (eds.) INDOCRYPT 2008. LNCS, vol. 5365, pp. 251–265. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brier, E., Clavier, C., Olivier, F.: Correlation Power Analysis with a Leakage Model. In: Joye, M., Quisquater, J.-J. (eds.) CHES 2004. LNCS, vol. 3156, pp. 16–29. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chari, S., Rao, J.R., Rohatgi, P.: Template Attacks. In: Kaliski Jr., B.S., Koç, Ç.K., Paar, C. (eds.) CHES 2002. LNCS, vol. 2523, pp. 13–28. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Clavier, C., Coron, J.-S., Dabbous, N.: Differential Power Analysis in the Presence of Hardware Countermeasures. In: Paar, C., Koç, Ç.K. (eds.) CHES 2000. LNCS, vol. 1965, pp. 252–263. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Duda, R.O., Hart, P.E., Stork, D.G.: Pattern Classification. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2001)MATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gierlichs, B., Batina, L., Tuyls, P., Preneel, B.: Mutual Information Analysis. In: Oswald, E., Rohatgi, P. (eds.) CHES 2008. LNCS, vol. 5154, pp. 426–442. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gierlichs, B., Lemke-Rust, K., Paar, C.: Templates vs. Stochastic Methods.. In: Goubin, L., Matsui, M. (eds.) CHES 2006. LNCS, vol. 4249, pp. 15–29. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kocher, P.C., Jaffe, J., Jun, B.: Differential Power Analysis. In: Wiener, M. (ed.) CRYPTO 1999. LNCS, vol. 1666, pp. 388–397. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ledig, H., Muller, F., Valette, F.: Enhancing Collision Attacks. In: Joye, M., Quisquater, J.-J. (eds.) CHES 2004. LNCS, vol. 3156, pp. 176–190. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lemke-Rust, K., Paar, C.: Gaussian Mixture Models for Higher-Order Side Channel Analysis.. In: Paillier, P., Verbauwhede, I. (eds.) CHES 2007. LNCS, vol. 4727, pp. 14–27. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mangard, S., Aigner, M., Dominikus, S.: A Highly Regular and Scalable AES Hardware Architecture. IEEE Trans. Computers 52(4), 483–491 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mangard, S., Oswald, E., Popp, T.: Power Analysis Attacks. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)MATHGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Messerges, T.S., Dabbish, E.A., Sloan, R.H.: Investigations of Power Analysis Attacks on Smartcards. In: Proceedings of USENIX Workshop on Smartcard Technology, pp. 151–162 (1999)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schindler, W., Lemke, K., Paar, C.: A Stochastic Model for Differential Side Channel Cryptanalysis.. In: Rao, J.R., Sunar, B. (eds.) CHES 2005. LNCS, vol. 3659, pp. 30–46. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schramm, K., Leander, G., Felke, P., Paar, C.: A Collision-Attack on AES Combining Side Channel- and Differential-Attack. In: Joye, M., Quisquater, J.-J. (eds.) CHES 2004. LNCS, vol. 3156, pp. 163–175. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schramm, K., Wollinger, T., Paar, C.: A New Class of Collision Attacks and Its Application to DES. In: Johansson, T. (ed.) FSE 2003. LNCS, vol. 2887, pp. 206–222. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Standaert, F.-X., Gierlichs, B., Verbauwhede, I.: Partition vs. comparison side-channel distinguishers. In: ICISC 2008. LNCS, vol. 5461, pp. 253–267. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tan, P.-N., Steinbach, M., Kumar, V.: Introduction to Data Mining. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Walter, C.: Sliding Windows Succumbs to Big Mac Attack. In: Koç, Ç.K., Naccache, D., Paar, C. (eds.) CHES 2001. LNCS, vol. 2162, pp. 286–299. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wolkerstorfer, J., Oswald, E., Lamberger, M.: An ASIC Implementation of the AES SBoxes. In: Preneel, B. (ed.) CT-RSA 2002. LNCS, vol. 2271, pp. 67–78. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lejla Batina
    • 1
  • Benedikt Gierlichs
    • 1
  • Kerstin Lemke-Rust
    • 2
  1. 1.ESAT/SCD-COSIC and IBBTK.U. LeuvenLeuven-HeverleeBelgium
  2. 2.University of Applied Sciences Bonn-Rhein-SiegSankt AugustinGermany

Personalised recommendations