Neural Grammar Networks

  • Eddie Y. T. Ma
  • Stefan C. Kremer
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 247)


Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) (Haykin, 1998) are universal function approximators (Hornik et al., 1989) with adaptive behaviour based on gradient descent in error space (Werbos, 1994) and other methods. These networks have been applied to a wide variety of problems from a broad range of domains that can be formulated as vectorto- vector mappings. That is, the function to be approximated must be represented as a function whose domain and whose range are given by two vector spaces (Figure 1). Many methods have been used to translate data into such spaces. A variety of interesting problems, including those that process measurements from a fixed set of sensors naturally lend themselves to vector representations.When data is not easily encoded in fixed-size vectors, a number of transformations of data have been proposed including padding the data, frequency space representations, windowing and others.


Androgen Receptor Hide Node Parse Tree Input String Recurrent Network 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eddie Y. T. Ma
  • Stefan C. Kremer

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