Advertisement

Systemic Contact Dermatitis

  • Niels K. Veien
  • Torkil Menné
Chapter

Abstract

The term systemic contact dermatitis is used to describe dermatitis in persons with contact sensitivity who are exposed to the hapten orally, transcutaneously, intravenously, or by inhalation. Well-known examples are eczematous eruptions seen after medicaments are administered to persons with contact sensitivity to the specific medicament. Other causes include the ingestion of the metals mercury, nickel, cobalt, and dichromate, and plant allergens such as sesquiterpene lactones. Typical clinical features are flare-up reactions of previous dermatitis or previously positive patch test sites, widespread dermatitis, vesicular palmar, and/or plantar dermatitis and flexural dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is rare compared with other types of contact dermatitis.

Keywords

Contact Dermatitis Patch Test Sesquiterpene Lactone Oral Challenge Hand Eczema 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Nielsen NH, Linneberg A, Menné T, Madsen F, Frølund L, Dirksen A, Jørgensen T (2001) Allergic contact sensitization in an adult Danish population: two cross-sectional surveys eight years apart. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 81:31–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shelley WB, Crissey JT (1970) Thomas bateman. In: Shelley WB, Crissey JT (eds) Classics in clinical dermatology. Thomas, Illinois, p 22Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schittenhelm A, Stockinger W (1925) Über die Idiosynkrasie gegen Nickel (Nickel-krätze) und ihre Beziehung zur Anaphylaxie. Z Ges Exp Med 45:58–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cronin E (1980) Reactions to the systemic absorption of contact allergens in: contact dermatitis. Churchill Livingstone, London, pp 26–29Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fisher AA (1986) Systemic contact-type dermatitis. In: Fisher AA (ed) Contact dermatitis. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 119–131Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Menné T, Veien NK, Sjølin K-E, Maibach HI (1994) Systemic contact dermatitis. Am J Contact Dermat 5:1–12Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Veien NK, Menné T, Maibach HI (2008) Systemic contact dermatitis. In: Zhai H, Wilhelm K-P, Maibach HI (eds) Dermatotoxicology, 7th edn. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 139–153Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nijhawan RI, Molenda M, Zirwas MJ, Jacob SE (2009) Systemic contact dermatitis. Dermatol Clin 27:355–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ekelund A-G, Möller H (1969) Oral provocation in eczematous contact allergy to neomycin and hydroxyquinolines. Acta Derm Venereol 49:422–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Christensen OB, Möller H (1975) External and internal exposure to the antigen in the hand eczema of nickel allergy. Contact Derm 1:136–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Menné T, Weisman K (1984) Hämatogenes Kontakteksem nach oraler Gabe von Neomycin. Der Hautarzt 35:319–320Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Christensen OB, Lindström C, Löfberg H, Möller H (1981) Micromorphology and specificity of orally induced flare-up reactions in nickel-sensitive patients. Acta Derm Venereol 61:505–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hindsén M (1998) Clinical and experimental studies in nickel allergy. Dissertation, MalmöGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Veien NK (2009) Acute and recurrent vesicular hand dermatitis. Dermatol Clin 27:337–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wintzen M, Donker AS, van Zuuren EJ (2003) Recalcitrant atopic dermatitis due to allergy to Compositae. Contact Derm 48:87–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Andersen KE, Hjorth N, Menné T (1984) The baboon syndrome: systemically induced allergic contact dermatitis. Contact Derm 10:97–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nakayama H, Niki F, Shono M, Hada S (1983) Mercury exanthem. Contact Derm 9:411–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lerch M, Bircher AJ (2004) Systemically induced allergic exanthem from mercury. Contact Derm 50:349–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kaaber K, Veien NK (1977) The significance of chromate ingestion in patients allergic to chromate. Acta Derm Venereol 57:321–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Möller H, Ohlsson K, Linder C, Björkner B, Bruze M (1998) Cytokines and acute phase reactants during flare-up of contact allergy to gold. Am J Cont Derm 9:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Möller H, Gjörkner B, Bruze M et al (1999) Laser Doppler perfusion imaging for the documentation of flare-up in contact allergy to cold. Contact Derm 41:131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vena GA, Foti C, Grandolfo M, Angelini G (1994) Mercury exanthem. Contact Derm 31:214–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Scheper RJ, von Blomberg B, GH BD, van Dinther A, Vos A (1983) Induction of local memory in the skin. Role of local T cell retention. Clin Exp Immunol 51:141–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yamashita N, Natsuaki M, Sagamis S (1989) Flare-up reactions on murine contact hypersensitivity. I. Description of an experimental model: rechallenge system. Immunology 67:365–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Di Gioacchino M, Boscolo P, Cavallucci E, Verna N, Di Stefano F, Di Sciascio M, Masci S, Andreassi M, Sabbioni E, Angelucci D, Conti P (2000) Lymphocyte subset changes in blood and gastrointestinal mucosa after oral nickel challenge in nickel-sensitized women. Contact Derm 43:206–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jensen CS, Lisby S, Larsen JK, Veien NK, Menné T (2004) Characterization of lymphocyte subpopulations and cytokine profiles in peripheral blood of nickel-sensitive individuals with systemic contact dermatitis after oral nickel exposure. Contact Derm 50:31–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thomssen H, Hoffmann B, Schank M, Hohler T, Thabe H, Meyer zum Buschenfelde KH, Marker-Hermann E (2001) Cobalt-specific T lymphocytes in synovial tissue after an allergic reaction to a cobalt alloy joint prosthesis. J Rheumatol 28:1121–1128Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Möller H, Ohlsson K, Linder C, Björkner B, Bruze M (1999) The flare-up reactions after systemic provocation in contact allergy to nickel and gold. Contact Derm 40: 200–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yawalka N, Hari Y, Helbling A, von Gregerz S, Kappeler A, Braathen LR, Pichler WJ (1998) Elevated serum levels of interleukins 5, 6 and 10 in a patient with drug-induced exanthem caused by systemic corticosteroids. J Am Acad Dermatol 39:790–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Oh S-H, Haw C-R, Lee M-H (2003) Clinical and immunologic features of systemic contact dermatitis from ingestion of Rhus (Toxicodendron). Contact Derm 48:251–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van Hoogstraten IMW, Boden D, von Blomberg ME, Kraal G, Scheper RJ (1992) Persistent immune tolerance to nickel and chromium by oral administration prior to cutaneous sensitization. J Invest Dermatol 99:607–611Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Handa S, Sahoo B, Sharma VK (2001) Oral hyposensitization in patients with contact dermatitis from Parthenium hysterophorus. Contact Derm 44:279–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mahajan VK, Sharma NL, Sharma RC (2004) Parthenium dermatitis: is it a systemic contact dermatitis or an airborne contact dermatitis? Contact Derm 51:231–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mori Y, Son S, Murakami K et al (2000) Two cases of chrysanthemum dermatitis – successful oral tolerance induction using chrysanthemum juice. Environ Dermatol 7:223–229Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mak RKH, White IR, White JML, McFadden JP, Goon AJT (2007) Lower incidence of sesquiterpene lactone sensitivity in a population in Asia versus a population in Europe: an effect of chrysanthemum tea? Contact Derm 57:163–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Thong H-Y, Yokota M, Chan H, Maibach HI (2008) Possible anergy after generalized orally elicited allergic contact dermatitis to corticosteroid. Contact Derm 58:126–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Isaksson M (2000) Clinical and experimental studies in corticosteroid contact allergy (Dissertation). Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Malmö, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pirker C, Misic A, Frosch PJ (2003) Angioedema and dysphagia caused by contact allergy to inhaled budesonide. Contact Derm 49:77–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Isaksson M (2007) Systemic contact allergy to corticosteroids revisited. Contact Derm 57:386–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Vidal C, Tomé S, Fernándex-Redondo V, Tato F (1994) Systemic allergic reactions to corticosteroids. Contact Derm 31:273–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Calnan CD (1956) Nickel dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 68:229–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Marcussen PV (1957) Spread of nickel dermatitis. Dermatologica 115:596–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kalimo K, Lammintausta K, Jalava J, Niskanen T (1997) Is it possible to improve the prognosis in nickel contact dermatitis? Contact Derm 37:121–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nielsen NN, Linneberg A, Menné T, Madsen F, Frolund L, Dirksen A, Jørgensen T (2002) The association between contact allergy and hand eczema in 2 cross-sectional surveys 8 years apart. Contact Derm 47:71–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kaaber K, Veien NK, Tjell JC (1978) Low nickel diet in the treatment of patients with chronic nickel dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 98:197–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kaaber K, Menné T, Tjell JC, Veien N (1979) Antabuse treatment of nickel dermatitis. Chelation – a new principle in the treatment of nickel dermatitis. Contact Derm 5:221–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Veien NK, Hattel T, Justesen O, Nørholm A (1987) Oral challenge with nickel and cobalt in patients with positive patch tests to nickel and/or cobalt. Acta Derm Venereol 67:321–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jensen CS, Menné T, Lisby S, Kristiansen J, Veien NK (2003) Experimental systemic contact dermatitis from nickel: a dose-response study. Contact Derm 49:124–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hindsen M, Bruze M, Christensen OB (2001) Flare-up reactions after oral challenge with nickel in relation to challenge dose and intensity and time of previous patch test reactions. J Am Acad Dermatol 44:616–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stoddard JC (1960) Nickel sensitivity as a cause of infusious reaction. Lancet 2:741–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Smeenk G, Teunissen PC (1977) Allergische reacties op nikkel uit infusietoedieningssystemen. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 121:4–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Olerud JE, Lee MY, Ulvelli DA, Goble GJ, Babb AL (1984) Presumptive nickel dermatitis from hemodialysis. Arch Dermatol 120:1066–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nosbaum A, Rival-Tringali AL, Barth X, Damon H, Vital-Durand D, Claudy A, Faure M (2008) Nickel-induced systemic allergic dermatitis from a sacral neurostimulator. Contact Derm 59:319–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Veien NK, Borchorst E, Hattel T, Laurberg G (1994) Stomatitis or systemically induced contact dermatitis from metal wire in orthodontic materials. Contact Derm 30:210–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kerosuo H, Kanerva L (1997) Systemic contact dermatitis caused by nickel in a stainless steel orthodontic appliance. Contact Derm 36:112–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mancuso G, Berdondini RM (2002) Eyelid dermatitis and conjunctivitis as sole manifestations of allergy to nickel in an orthodontic appliance. Contact Derm 46:245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wilkinson JD (1989) Nickel allergy and orthopaedic prostheses. In: Maibach HI, Menné T (eds) Nickel and the skin. Immunology and toxicology. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 188–193Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Antony FC, Dudley W, Field R, Holden CA (2003) Metal allergy resurfaces in failed hip endoprostheses. Contact Derm 48:49–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Veien NK, Menné T (1990) Nickel contact allergy and a nickel-restricted diet. Semin Dermatol 9:197–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    De Medeiros LM, Fransway AF, Taylor JS, Wyman M, Janes J, Fowler JF Jr, Rietschel RL (2008) Complementary and alternative remedies: an additional source of potential systemic nickel exposure. Contact Derm 58:97–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Berg T, Petersen A, Pedersen GA, Petersen J, Madsen C (2000) The release of nickel and other trace elements from electric kettles and coffee machines. Food Addit Contam 17:189–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Veien NK, Hattel T, Laurberg G (1993) Low nickel diet: an open, prospective trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 29:1002–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Veien NK, Hattel T, Justesen O, Nørholm A (1985) Dietary treatment of nickel dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol 65:138–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Antico A, Soana R (1999) Chronic allergic-like dermatopathies in nickel-sensitive patients. Results of dietary restrictions and challenge with nickel salts. Allergy Asthma Proc 20:235–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jensen CS, Menné T, Johansen JD (2006) Systemic contact dermatitis after oral exposure to nickel: a review with a modified meta-analysis. Contact Derm 54:79–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sharma AD (2006) Disulfiram and low nickel diet in the management of hand eczema: a clinical study. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 72:113–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Veien NK, Hattel T, Laurberg G (1994) Chromate-allergic patients challenged orally with potassium dichromate. Contact Derm 31:137–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fowler JF Jr (2000) Systemic contact dermatitis caused by oral chromium picolinate. Cutis 65:116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Veien NK, Hattel T, Laurberg G (1995) Placebo-controlled oral challenge with cobalt in patients with positive patch test to cobalt. Contact Derm 33:54–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stuckert J, Nedorost S (2008) Low-cobalt diet for dyshidrotic eczema patients. Contact Derm 59:361–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wichs IP, Wong D, McCullagh RB, Fleming A (1988) Contact allergy to gold after systemic administration of gold for rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Reum Dis 47:421–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Möller H, Björkner B, Bruze M (1996) Clinical reactions to provocation with gold sodium thiomalate in patients with contact allergy to gold. Br J Dermatol 135:423–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Möller H, Larsson Å, Björkner B, Bruze M, Hagstam Å (1996) Flare up of contact allergy sites in a gold-treated rheumatic patient. Acta Derm Venereol 76:55–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Möller H, Svensson Å, Björkner B, Bruze M, Lindroth Y, Marthorpe R, Theander J (1997) Contact allergy to gold and gold therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Derm Venerol 77:370–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nakayama H, Shono M, Hada S (1984) Mercury exanthem. J Am Acad Dermatol 11:137–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Audicana M, Bernedo N, Gonzalex I, Munoz D, Fernandez E, Gastaminza G (2001) An unusual case of baboon syndrome due to mercury present in a homeopathic medicine. Contact Derm 45:185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Adachi A, Horikawa T, Takashima T et al (2000) Mercury-induced nummular dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 43:383–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Garcia-Menaya JM, Cordobés-Durán C, Bobadilla P, Lamilla A, Moreno I (2008) Baboon syndrome: 2 simultaneous cases in the same family. Contact Derm 58:108–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Veien NK (1997) The role of ingested food in systemic allergic contact dermatitis. Clin Dermatol 15:547–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kligman AM (1958) Hyposensitization against rhus dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 78:47–72, 93Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ratner JH, Spencer SK, Grainge JM (1974) Cashew nut dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 110:921–923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kligman AM (1958) Cashew nut shell oil for hyposensitization against rhus dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 78:359–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hamilton TK, Zug KA (1998) Systemic contact dermatitis to raw cashew nuts in a pesto sauce. Am J Contact Dermat 9:51–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hjorth N (1965) Allergy to balsams. Spectrum Int 7:97–101Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Veien NK, Hattel T, Justesen O, Nørholm N (1985) Oral challenge with balsam of Peru. Contact Derm 12: 104–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hausen BM (2001) Rauchen, Süssigkeiten, Perubalsam – ein Circulus vitiosus? Akt Dermatol 27:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Veien NK, Hattel T, Laurberg G (1996) Can oral challenge with balsam of Peru predict possible benefit from a low-balsam diet? Am J Contact Dermat 7:84–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Salam TN, Fowler JF Jr (2001) Balsam-related systemic contact dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 45:377–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pfutzner W, Thomas P, Niedermeier A, Pfeiffer C, Sander C, Przybilla B (2003) Systemic contact dermatitis elicited by oral intake of balsam of Peru. Acta Derm Venereol 83:294–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Oliwiecki S, Beck MH, Hausen BM (1991) Compositae dermatitis aggravated by eating lettuce. Contact Derm 24:318–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Dooms-Goossens A, Bubelloy R, Degreef H (1990) Contact and systemic contact-type dermatitis to spices. Dermatol Clin 8:89–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rodríguez-Serna M, Sánchez-Motilla MM, Ramón R, Aliaga A (1998) allergic and systemic contact dermatitis from Matricaria chamomilla tea. Contact Derm 39:192–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Schatzle M, Agathos M, Breit R (1998) Allergic contact dermatitis from goldenrod (Herba solidaginis) after systemic administration. Contact Derm 39:271–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rycroft RJG (2003) Recurrent facial dermatitis from chomomile tea. Contact Derm 48:229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Barden AD, Wilkinson SM, Bech MH, Chalmers RJG (1994) Garlic induced systemic contact dermatitis. Contact Derm 30:299–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Pereira F, Hatia M, Cardoso J (2002) Systemic contact dermatitis from diallyl disulfide. Contact Derm 46:124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Roed-Petersen J, Hjorth N (1976) Contact dermatitis from antioxidants. Br J Dermatol 94:233–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gierdano-Labadil F, Pech-Ormieres C, Bazex J (1996) Systemic contact dermatitis from sorbic acid. Contact Derm 34:61–62Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Raison-Peyron N, Meynadier JM, Meynadier J (2000) Sorbic acid: an unusual cause of systemic contact dermatitis in an infant. Contact Derm 43:247–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Dejobert Y, Delaporte E, Piette F, Thomas P (2001) Vesicular eczema and systemic contact dermatitis from sorbic acid. Contact Derm 45:291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lowther A, McCormick T, Nedorost S (2008) Systemic contact dermatitis from propylene glycol. Dermatitis 19:105–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Veien NK, Hattel T, Laurberg G (1993) Systemically aggravated contact dermatitis caused by aluminium in tooth paste. Contact Derm 28:199–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bonamonte D, Foti C, Antelmi AR, Biscozzi AM, Naro ED, Fanelli M, Loverro G, Angelini G (2005) Nickel contact allergy and menstrual cycle. Contact Derm 52:309–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    White JML, Goon ATJ, Jowsey IR, Basketter DA, Mak RKH, Kimber I, McFadden JP (2007) Oral tolerance to contact allergens: a common occurrence? A review. Contact Derm 56:247–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ekenvall L, Forsbeck M (1978) Contact eczema produced by a beta-adrenergic blocking agent (alprenolol). Contact Derm 4:190–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Förström L, Hannuksela M, Kousa M, Lehmuskallio E (1980) Merthiolate hypersensitivity and vaccines. Contact Derm 6:241–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Aberer W (1991) Vaccinations despite thiomersal sensitivity. Contact Derm 24:6–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Maibach HI (1987) Oral substitution in patients sensitized by transdermal clonidine treatment. Contact Derm 16:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hannuksela M, Förström L (1978) Reactions to peroral propylene glycol. Contact Derm 4:41–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hill AM, Belsito DV (2003) Systemic contact dermatitis of the eyelids caused by formaldehyde derived from aspartame? Contact Derm 49:258–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Veien NK, Hattel T, Justensen O, Nørholm A (1987) Diagnostic procedures for eczema patients. Contact Derm 17:35–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dermatology ClinicAalborgDenmark
  2. 2.University of Copenhagen, Gentofte HospitalHellerupDenmark

Personalised recommendations