Advertisement

‘I Know That You Know’ - Ascertaining Mutual Awareness of Recipient’s Availability Status in Instant Messaging Applications

  • Agnieszka Matysiak Szóstek
  • Berry Eggen
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5726)

Abstract

This study investigated ways to attain mutual, reciprocal awareness of recipient’s availability status in Instant Messaging (IM) applications. For that purpose we designed, implemented and tested a prototype of an IM system named DoNTBother. The analysis of the quantitative and qualitative results showed that displaying status indication in the chat box encouraged participants to show more respect towards the communicative state of their colleagues comparing to situations, in which the status indication was presented only in the ‘buddy list’ view. These findings empirically confirm the importance of reciprocal awareness as defined by Erickson and Kellogg [12] who argued that, to stimulate social behaviours, systems need to maintain the mutual knowledge of who knows what of the information that is shared among users. The study also showed that mutual awareness needs to be maintained not only during communication initiation but also throughout the entire communication duration. To achieve that Instant Messaging systems need to: (i) support indicating the time frame for answering messages in situations when the recipient is not instantaneously able to engage in a conversation, (ii) support specifying the urgency of a message and also (iii) support indicating communication breakdowns especially if they are caused by a reason occurring outside the application domain.

Keywords

Instant Messaging systems availability mutual awareness 

References

  1. 1.
    Aoki, P.M., Woodruff, A.: Making space for stories: Ambiguity in the design of personal communication systems, pp. 181–190. ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Avrahami, D., Fussell, S.R., Hudson, S.E.: IM waiting: timing and responsiveness in semi-synchronous communication. In: CSCW, pp. 285–294. ACM Press, New York (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Avrahami, D., Hudson, S.E.: Communication characteristics of instant messaging: effects and predictions of interpersonal relationships. In: CSCW, pp. 505–514. ACM Press, New York (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Avrahami, D., Hudson, S.E.: Responsiveness in instant messaging: predictive models supporting inter-personal communication. In: CHI, pp. 731–740. ACM Press, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barker, R.G.: Ecological psychology. Stanford University Press, Stanford (1968)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Begole, J., Matsakis, N.E., Tang, J.C.: Lilsys: Sensing unavailability. In: CSCW, pp. 511–514. ACM Press, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Begole, J., Tang, J.C., Hill, R.: Rhythm modeling, visualizations and applications. In: UIST, vol. 1, pp. 11–20. ACM Press, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brown, P., Levinson, S.C.: Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1987)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Clark, H.: Using language. Cambridge University Press, New York (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dabbish, L., Kraut, R.: Controlling interruptions: Awareness displays and social motivation for coordination. In: CSCW, vol. 1, pp. 182–191. ACM Press, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dourish, P., Bly, S.: Portholes: supporting awareness in a distributed work group. In: CHI, pp. 541–547. ACM Press, New York (1992)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Erickson, T., Kellogg, W.A.: Social translucence: An approach to designing systems that support social processes. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 7(1), 59–83 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fogarty, J., Hudson, S.E., Atkeson, C.G., Avrahami, D., Forlizzi, J., Kiesler, S., Lee, J.C., Yang, J.: Predicting human interruptability with sensors. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 12(1), 119–146 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fogarty, J., Lai, J., Christensen, J.: Presence versus availability: the design and evaluation of a context-aware communication client. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 61(3), 299–317 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Garrett, R.K., Danziger, J.N.: IM= interruption management? instant messaging and disruption in the workplace. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13(1), 23–42 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goffman, E.: Interaction Ritual: Essays in Face-to-face Behavior. Random House Inc. (1967)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hatch, M.J.: Physical barriers, task characteristics, and interaction activity in research and development firms. Administrative Science Quarterly 32(3), 387–399 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hsieh, G., Hudson, S.E., Kraut, R.: Using tags to assist near-synchronous communication. In: CHI. ACM Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hsieh, H.F., Shannon, S.E.: Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research 15(9), 12–77 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Isaacs, E., Walendowski, A., Whittaker, S., Schiano, D.J., Kamm, C.: The character, functions, and styles of instant messaging in the workplace. In: CSCW, pp. 11–22. ACM Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Latorella, K.A.: Investigating Interruptions: Implications for Flightdeck Performance. PhD thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo (1996)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    McEwan, G., Greenberg, S.: Community bar: Designing for awareness and interaction. In: CHI. ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    McFarlane, D.C., Latorella, K.A.: The scope and importance of human interruption in human-computer interaction design. Human-Computer Interaction 17(1), 1–61 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Milewski, A.E., Smith, T.M.: Providing presence cues to telephone users. In: CSCW, pp. 89–96. ACM Press, New York (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nardi, B.A., Whittaker, S.: The place of face-to-face communication in distributed work. In: Hinds, P., Kiesler, S. (eds.) Distributed Work. MIT Press, Cambridge (2001)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nardi, B.A., Whittaker, S., Bradner, E.: Interaction and Outeraction: Instant Messaging in action. In: CSCW, pp. 79–88. ACM Press, New York (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Palen, L., Dourish, P.: Unpacking “privacy” for a networked world. In: CHI, pp. 129–136. ACM Press, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shrout, P.E., Fleiss, J.L.: Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychology Bulletin 86(2), 420–428 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Szostek Matysiak, A., Karapanos, E., Eggen, B., Holenderski, M.: Understanding the implications of social translucence for systems supporting communication at work. In: CSCW. ACM Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tang, J.C.: Approaching and leave-taking: Negotiating contact in computer-mediated communication. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 14(1) (2007)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tang, J.C., Isaacs, E.A., Rua, M.: Supporting distributed groups with a montage of lightweight interactions. In: CSCW, pp. 23–34. ACM Press, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tang, J.C., Yankelovich, N., Begole, J., Van Kleek, M., Li, F., Bhalodia, J.: Connexus to Awarenex: extending awareness to mobile users. In: CHI, pp. 221–228. ACM Press, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tang, J.C., Wilcox, E., Cerruti, J.A., Badenes, H., Nusser, S., Schoudt, J.: Tag-it, snag-it, or bag-it: combining tags, threads, and folders in e-mail. In: CHI. ACM Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Voida, A., Newstetter, W.C., Mynatt, E.D.: When conventions collide: the tensions of instant messaging attributed. In: CHI. ACM Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wiberg, M., Whittaker, S.: Managing availability: supporting lightweight negotiations to handle interruptions. ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction 1(12) (2005)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
  37. 37.

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agnieszka Matysiak Szóstek
    • 1
  • Berry Eggen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Industrial DesignEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations