On the Privacy Protection of Biometric Traits: Palmprint, Face, and Signature
Biometrics are expected to add a new level of security to applications, as a person attempting access must prove who he or she really is by presenting a biometric to the system. The recent developments in the biometrics area have lead to smaller, faster and cheaper systems, which in turn has increased the number of possible application areas for biometric identity verification. The biometric data, being derived from human bodies (and especially when used to identify or verify those bodies) is considered personally identifiable information (PII). The collection, use and disclosure of biometric data — image or template, invokes rights on the part of an individual and obligations on the part of an organization. As biometric uses and databases grow, so do concerns that the personal data collected will not be used in reasonable and accountable ways. Privacy concerns arise when biometric data are used for secondary purposes, invoking function creep, data matching, aggregation, surveillance and profiling. Biometric data transmitted across networks and stored in various databases by others can also be stolen, copied, or otherwise misused in ways that can materially affect the individual involved. As Biometric systems are vulnerable to replay, database and brute-force attacks, such potential attacks must be analysed before they are massively deployed in security systems. Along with security, also the privacy of the users is an important factor as the constructions of lines in palmprints contain personal characteristics, from face images a person can be recognised, and fake signatures can be practised by carefully watching the signature images available in the database. We propose a cryptographic approach to encrypt the images of palmprints, faces, and signatures by an advanced Hill cipher technique for hiding the information in the images. It also provides security to these images from being attacked by above mentioned attacks. So, during the feature extraction, the encrypted images are first decrypted, then the features are extracted, and used for identification or verification.
KeywordsBiometrics Face Palmprint Signature Privacy Protection Cryptography
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 4.Uludag, U., Pankanti, S., Prabhakar, S., Jain, A.: Biometric cryptosystems: Issues and challenges. In: Proceedings of the IEEE, Special Issue on Enabling Security Technologies for Digital Rights Management, June 2004, vol. 92, pp. 948–960 (2004)Google Scholar
- 6.Hao, F., Anderson, R., Daugman, J.: Combining cryptography with biometrics effectively. Technical Report UCAMCL-TR 640, Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom (July 2005)Google Scholar
- 7.Petersen, K.: Notes on number theory and cryptography (2002), http://www.math.unc.edu/Faculty/petersen/Coding/cr2.pdf
- 9.Schneir, B.: Cryptography and Network Security, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester (1996)Google Scholar
- 10.Acharya, B., Patra, S.K., Panda, G., Panigrahy, S.K.: Novel methods of generating self-invertible matrix for hill cipher algorithm. International Journal of Security 1(1), 14–21 (2007)Google Scholar
- 11.Li, S., Zheng, X.: On the security of an image encryption method. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP 2002), vol. 2, pp. 925–928 (2002), http://www.hooklee.com/Papers/ICIP2002.pdf
- 13.Panigrahy, S.K., Acharya, B., Jena, D.: Image encryption using self-invertible key matrix of hill cipher algorithm. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Advances in Computing (ICAC 2008), Chikhli, India, pp. 1–5 (2008)Google Scholar
- 15.Rangel-Romero, Y., et al.: Comments on how to repair the hill cipher. Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A, 1–4 (2007)Google Scholar
- 16.Palmprints. Hongkong PolyU Palmprint Database, http://www.comp.polyu.edu.hk/~biometric
- 17.Faces, Cambridge AT&T Lab Face Database, http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/research/dtg/attarchive/facedatabase.html