Using the ENF Criterion for Determining the Time of Recording of Short Digital Audio Recordings

  • Maarten Huijbregtse
  • Zeno Geradts
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5718)


The Electric Network Frequency (ENF) Criterion is a recently developed forensic technique for determining the time of recording of digital audio recordings, by matching the ENF pattern from a questioned recording with an ENF pattern database. In this paper we discuss its inherent limitations in the case of short – i.e., less than 10 minutes in duration – digital audio recordings. We also present a matching procedure based on the correlation coefficient, as a more robust alternative to squared error matching.


ENF authentication integrity 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maarten Huijbregtse
    • 1
  • Zeno Geradts
    • 1
  1. 1.Departement Digital Evidence and BiometricsNetherlands Forensic InstituteDEN HAAGNetherlands

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