Survey on Collaborative AR for Multi-user in Urban Studies and Planning

  • Ajune Wanis Ismail
  • Mohd Shahrizal Sunar
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5670)


This paper describes an augmented reality (AR) environment that allows multiple participants or multi-user to interact with 2D and 3D data. AR simply can provide a collaborative interactive AR environment for urban planning, where users can interact naturally and intuitively. In addition, the collaborative AR makes multi-user in urban planning to share simultaneously a real world and virtual world. The fusion between real and virtual world, existed in AR environment by see-through HMDs, achieves higher interactivity as a key features of collaborative AR. In real-time, precise registration between both worlds and multi-user are crucial for the collaborations. Collaborative AR allow multi-user to simultaneously share a real world surrounding them and a virtual world. Common problems in AR environment will be discussed and major issues in collaborative AR will be explained details in this survey. The features of collaboration in AR environment are will be identified and the requirements of collaborative AR will be defined. This paper will give an overview on collaborative AR environment for multi-user in urban studies and planning. The work will also cover numerous systems of collaborative AR environments for multi-user.


Augmented Reality Multi-User Collaborative Urban Planning 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Sutherland, I.: A Head-Mounted Three-Dimensional Display. FJCC AFIPS 33 (1968)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lee, Y., Oh, S.j., Suh, Y., Woo, W.: The ARTable: An AR-Based Tangible User Interface System. In: KHCI 2005, pp. 507–512 (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Milgram, P., Kishino, F.: A taxonomy of Mixed Reality visual displays. IEICE Transactions on Information Systems E77-D 12 (1994)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Azuma, R., Baillot, Y., Behringer, R., Feiner, S., Julier, S., Blair, M.: Recent advances in augmented reality. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 20–38 (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jian, F.: From Digital Earth to Digital City Shanghai Urban Planning. In: Information System. Engineering Design CAD and Intelligent Architecture, pp. 10–17 (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shuxia, W., Ai, J., Guo, P.: Digital Urban Planning-Concept and Support Technology. In: Ming, L., Menhui, W. (eds.) Theory and Practice of Digital City, vol. 2001(9), pp. 234–241. World Book Press, Guangzhou (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schmalstieg, D., Fuhrmann, A., Szalavari, Z., Gervautz, M.: Studierstube - An Environment for Collaboration in Augmented Reality. In: CVE 1996 Workshop Proceedings, Nottingham, Great Britain, September 19-20 (1996)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ishii, H., Ullmer, B.: Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces between People, Bits and Atoms. In: Proceedings of CHI 1997, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, pp. 234–241 (1997)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wang, X.: State-of-the-art review of augmented reality in architecture and construction. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (ISEC-4), Melbourne, Australia, September 26-28 (2007) (in press)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carlson, C., Hagsand, O.: DIVE - A Platform for Multi-User Virtual Environments. Computers and Graphics 17(6), 663–669 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Broll, W., Stoerring, M., Mottram, C.: The Augmented Round Table – a new Interface to Urban Planning and Architectural Design. In: Rauterberg, et al. (eds.) INTERACT 2003, pp. 1103–1104. IOS Press (c) IFIP, Amsterdam (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Broll, W., Lindt, I., Ohlenburg, J., Wittk, M., Yuan, C., Novotny, T.F., Schiecky, M.C., Strothmann, A.: ARTHUR: A Collaborative Augmented Environment for Architectural Design and Urban Planning. Journal of Virtual Reality and Broadcasting 1(1), 1 (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ohshima, T., Sato, K., Yamamoto, H., Tamura, H.: AR2Hockey: A case study of collaborative augmented reality. In: Proceedings of VRAIS 1998, pp. 268–295. IEEE Press, Los Alamitos (1998)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Billinghurst, M., Baldis, S., Miller, E., Weghorst, S.: Shared space: Collaborative information spaces. In: Proceeding HCI International 1997, pp. 7–10 (1997)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fuhrmann, A., Loffelmann, H., Schmalstieg, D.: Collaborative Augmented Reality: Exploring Dynamical Systems. In: Proceeding Visualization 1997, pp. 459–462 (1997)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ishii, H., Kobayashi, M., Arita, K.: Iterative Design of Seamless Collaboration Media. Communications of the ACM 37(8), 83–97 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pedersen, E.R., McCall, K., Moran, T., Halasz, F.: Tivoli: An Electronic Whiteboard for Informal Workgroup Meetings. In: Proceedings of Human Factors in Computing Systems, InterCHI 1993, pp. 391–398. ACM Press, New York (1993)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Billinghurst, M., Kato, H., Kiyokawa, K., Belcher, D., Poupyrev, I.: Experiments with Face to Face Collaborative AR Interfaces. Virtual Reality Journal 4(2) (2002)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Billinghurst, M., Kato, H., Poupyrev, I.: The Magic-Book – Moving Seamlessly between Reality and Virtuality. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 21(3), 6–8 (2001)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Butz, A., Höllerer, T., Feiner, S., MacIntyre, B., Beshers, C.: Enveloping Computers and Users in a Collaborative 3D Augmented Reality. In: Proceeding IWAR 1999 (1999)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sellen, A.: Remote Conversations: The effects of mediating talk with technology. Human Computer Interaction 1995 10(4), 401–444 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Raskar, R., Welch, G., Cutts, M., Lake, A., Stesin, L., Fuchs, H.: The Office of the Future: A unified approach to image based modeling and spatially immersive displays. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1998, pp. 179–188 (1998)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hollan, J., Stornetta, S.: Beyond Being There. In: Proceedings of CHI 1992, pp. 119–125. ACM Press, New York (1992)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gaver, W.: The Affordances of Media Spaces for Collaboration. In: Proceeding CSCW 1992, Toronto, Canada, October 31-November 4, pp. 17–24. ACM Press, New York (1992)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Agrawala, M., Beers, A.C., Fröhlich, B., McDowall, I., Hanrahan, P., Bolas, M.: The two-user responsive workbench: Support for collaboration through individual views of a shared space. In: Proceeding SIGGRAPH 1997, pp. 327–332 (1997)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Azuma, R.: A Survey of Augmented Reality. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 6(4), 355–385 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ishii, H., Ben-Joseph, E., Underkoffler, J., Yeung, L., Chak, D., Kanji, Z., Piper, B.: Augmented Urban Planning Workbench: Overlaying Drawings, Physical Models and Digital Simulation. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2002, pp. 203–211. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cheok, A.D., Yang, X., Zhou, Z.Y., Billinghurst, M., Kato, H.: Touch-Space: Mixed Reality Game Space Based on Ubiquitous, Tangible, and Social Computing. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 6(2), 430–442 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Grasset, R., Gascuel, J.: MARE: Multiuser Augmented Reality Environment on table setup. In: SIGGRAPH, Conference Abstracts and Applications, Computer Graphics Annual Conference Series (2002)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Broll, W., Meier, E., Schardt, T.: The Virtual Round Table, a Collaborative Augmented Multi-User Environment. ACM, San Francisco (2000) 1-58113-303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kaufmann, H., Schmalstieg, D., Wagner, M.: Construct3D: A Virtual Reality Application for Mathematics and Geometry Education. In: Education and Information Technologies 5-4, pp. 263–276 (2000)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thomas, H., Close, B., Donoghue, J., Bondi, P., Morris, M., Wayne, P.: ARQuake: An Outdoor/Indoor Augmented Reality First Person Application. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC 2000), Atlanta USA (October 2000)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Szalavári, Z., Gervautz, M.: The Personal Interaction Panel – A Two-Handed Interface for Augmented Reality. In: Proceedings EUROGRAPHICS 1997, pp. 335–346 (1997)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wagner, D., Pintaric, T., Ledermann, F., Schmalstieg, D.: Towards Massively Multi-User Augmented Reality on Handheld Devices, Vienna University of Technology (2005)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ajune, W., Zakiah, N.: Augmented Reality and application. In: Shahrizal, M., Najib, M. (eds.) Advances in Computer Graphic & Virtual Environment 2008, vol. 2, pp. 87–105. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (2008)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Regenbrecht, H., Wagner, M., Baratoff, G.: MagicMeeting: A Collaborative Tangible Augmented Reality System. Virtual Reality 6(3), 151–166 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gausemeier, J., Jurgen, F., Carsten, M.: AR-Planning Tool - Designing Flexible Manufacturing Systems with Augmented Reality. In: Proceedings of the Eighth Eurographics Workshop on Virtual Environments 2002, pp. 19–25 (2002)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schmalstieg, D., Sareika, M.: Urban Sketcher: Mixing Realities in the Urban Planning and Design Process. In: Proceedings of 6th IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, pp. 27–30 (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ajune Wanis Ismail
    • 1
  • Mohd Shahrizal Sunar
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Computer Science and Information SystemUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia

Personalised recommendations