Meet-in-the-Middle Preimage Attacks Against Reduced SHA-0 and SHA-1

  • Kazumaro Aoki
  • Yu Sasaki
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5677)

Abstract

Preimage resistance of several hash functions has already been broken by the meet-in-the-middle attacks and they utilize a property that their message schedules consist of only permutations of message words. It is unclear whether this type of attacks is applicable to a hash function whose message schedule does not consist of permutations of message words. This paper proposes new attacks against reduced SHA-0 and SHA-1 hash functions by analyzing a message schedule that does not consist of permutations but linear combinations of message words. The newly developed cryptanalytic techniques enable the meet-in-the-middle attack to be applied to reduced SHA-0 and SHA-1 hash functions. The attacks find preimages of SHA-0 and SHA-1 in 2156.6 and 2159.3 compression function computations up to 52 and 48 steps, respectively, compared to the brute-force attack, which requires 2160 compression function computations. The previous best attacks find preimages up to 49 and 44 steps, respectively.

Keywords

SHA-0 SHA-1 meet-in-the-middle one-way preimage 

References

  1. 1.
    Aoki, K., Sasaki, Y.: Preimage attacks on one-block MD4, 63-step MD5 and more. In: Avanzi, R., Keliher, L., Sica, F. (eds.) Selected Areas in Cryptography — Workshop Records of 15th Annual International Workshop, SAC 2008, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada, pp. 82–98 (2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aumasson, J.-P., Meier, W., Mendel, F.: Preimage attacks on 3-pass HAVAL and step-reduced MD5. In: Avanzi, R., Keliher, L., Sica, F. (eds.) Selected Areas in Cryptography — Workshop Records of 15th Annual International Workshop, SAC 2008, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada, pp. 99–114 (2008) (also appears in IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2008/183, http://eprint.iacr.org/2008/183)
  3. 3.
    De Cannière, C., Rechberger, C.: Preimages for reduced SHA-0 and SHA-1. In: Wagner, D. (ed.) CRYPTO 2008. LNCS, vol. 5157, pp. 179–202. Springer, Heidelberg (2008) (slides on preliminary results presented at ESC 2008 seminar, http://wiki.uni.lu/esc/)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hong, D., Chang, D., Sung, J., Lee, S., Hong, S., Lee, J., Moon, D., Chee, S.: New FORK-256 (2007) (IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2007/185, http://eprint.iacr.org/2007/185)
  5. 5.
    Leurent, G.: MD4 is not one-way. In: Nyberg, K. (ed.) FSE 2008. LNCS, vol. 5086, pp. 412–428. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Menezes, A.J., van Oorschot, P.C., Vanstone, S.A.: Handbook of applied cryptography. CRC Press, Boca Raton (1997)MATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rivest, R.L.: The MD4 message digest algorithm. In: Menezes, A.J., Vanstone, S.A. (eds.) CRYPTO 1990. LNCS, vol. 537, pp. 303–311. Springer, Heidelberg (1991); Also appears in RFC 1320, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1320.txtGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rivest, R.L.: Request for Comments 1321: The MD5 Message Digest Algorithm. The Internet Engineering Task Force (1992), http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1321.txt
  9. 9.
    Saarinen, M.-J.O.: A meet-in-the-middle collision attack against the new FORK-256. In: Srinathan, K., Pandu Rangan, C., Yung, M. (eds.) INDOCRYPT 2007. LNCS, vol. 4859, pp. 10–17. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sasaki, Y., Aoki, K.: Preimage attacks on 3, 4, and 5-pass HAVAL. In: Pieprzyk, J. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2008. LNCS, vol. 5350, pp. 253–271. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sasaki, Y., Aoki, K.: Finding preimages in full MD5 faster than exhaustive search. In: Cramer, R. (ed.) Advances in Cryptology — EUROCRYPT 2009. LNCS, vol. 5479, pp. 134–152. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sasaki, Y., Aoki, K.: A preimage attack for 52-step HAS-160. In: Lee, P.J., Cheon, J.H. (eds.) Information Security and Cryptology - ICISC 2008, 11th International Conference. LNCS, vol. 5461, pp. 302–317. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Secure Hash Standard (SHS) (Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 180-3) (2008), http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/PubsFIPS.html#FIPS%20186-3
  14. 14.
    Wang, X., Yu, H.: How to break MD5 and other hash functions. In: Cramer, R. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3494, pp. 19–35. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zheng, Y., Pieprzyk, J., Seberry, J.: HAVAL — one-way hashing algorithm with variable length of output. In: Zheng, Y., Seberry, J. (eds.) AUSCRYPT 1992. LNCS, vol. 718, pp. 83–104. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazumaro Aoki
    • 1
  • Yu Sasaki
    • 1
  1. 1.NTTTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations