Versioning of Network Models in a Multiuser Environment

  • Petko Bakalov
  • Erik Hoel
  • Sudhakar Menon
  • Vassilis J. Tsotras
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5644)


The standard database mechanisms for concurrency control, which include transactions and locking protocols, do not provide the support needed for updating complex geographic data in a multiuser environment. The preferred method to resolve conflicts in GIS systems is to encapsulate the modifications generated by the end users through the use of multiple versions. Multiuser (or versioned) geographic databases allow users to operate as though they have full access to the entire dataset. Instead of relying upon row locking, versioned databases allow multiple users to simultaneously edit the same row. They implement a model for conflict detection and resolution where the first to commit the change wins by default (though clients can manually intervene and select the latter change as the winner).

Network models are frequently used as a mechanism to describe the connectivity information between spatial features in many emerging GIS applications. Supporting networks within the context of a versioned database imposes additional requirements – the complex network model must retain integrity irrespective of the sequence of simultaneous edits by various clients. In this paper, we review our network model and discuss the enhancements necessary to maintaining topological network integrity in this complex environment. Our solution is based on the notion of dirty areas and dirty objects (i.e., regions or elements that contain edits that have not been reflected in the network connectivity index). The dirty areas and objects are identified and marked during editing of the network feature data. They are then subsequently cleaned as a byproduct of the incremental update of the connectivity network.


Versioning Network Models Transportation Networks 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bakalov, P., Hoel, E., Heng, W.L., Tsotras, V.: Maintaining Connectivity in Dynamic Multimodal Network Models. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE 2008), Cancun, Mexico, April 2008, pp. 1267–1276 (2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Borchert, R.: Geometric Network: What Is It and How to Make It? In: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual ESRI User Conference, San Diego (July 2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Caldwell, T.: On Finding Minimum Routes in a Network with Turn Penalties. Communications of the ACM 4(2), 107–108 (1961)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cho, H.-J., Chung, C.-W.: An Efficient and Scalable Approach to CNN Queries in a Road Network. In: Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB 2005), Trondheim, Norway, August 2005, pp. 865–876 (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Caliper Corporation: TransCAD Transportation GIS Software Reference Manual. Caliper Corporation (1996)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dittrich, K., Lorie, R.: Version Support for Engineering Database Systems. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 14(4) (April 1988)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dueker, K., Butler, A.: GIS-T Enterprise Data Model with Suggested Implementation Choices. Journal of the Urban and Regional Information Systems 10(1), 12–36 (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Easterfield, M., Newell, R., Theriault, G.: Version management in GIS - applications and techniques. In: Proc. of the European Conference on Geographical Information Systems (EGIS 1990), Amsterdam, April 1990, pp. 1–8 (1990)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ESRI: Building a Geodatabase. Prepared by Environmental Systems Research Institute. ESRI Press, Redlands (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Evans, J., Minieka, E.: Optimization Algorithms for Networks and Graphs. Dekker, Marcel Incorporated (1992)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goodchild, M.: Geographic Information Systems and Disaggregate Transportation Modeling. Geographical Systems 5(1-2), 19–44 (1998)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hage, C., Jensen, C., Pedersen, T., Speicys, L., Timko, I.: Integrated Data Management for Mobile Services in the Real World. In: Proceedings of the 29th Intl. Conf. on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB 2003), Berlin, September 2003, pp. 1019–1030 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hoel, E., Menon, S., Morehouse, S.: Building a Robust Relational Implementation of Topology. In: Hadzilacos, T., Manolopoulos, Y., Roddick, J., Theodoridis, Y. (eds.) SSTD 2003. LNCS, vol. 2750, pp. 508–524. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hoel, E., Heng, W.L., Honeycutt, D.: High Performance Multimodal Networks. In: Bauzer Medeiros, C., Egenhofer, M.J., Bertino, E. (eds.) SSTD 2005. LNCS, vol. 3633, pp. 308–327. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jensen, C., Pedersen, T., Speicys, L., Timko, I.: Data Modeling for Mobile Services in the Real World. In: Hadzilacos, T., Manolopoulos, Y., Roddick, J., Theodoridis, Y. (eds.) SSTD 2003. LNCS, vol. 2750, pp. 1–9. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Katz, R.: Toward a Unified Framework for Version Modeling in Engineering Databases. ACM Computing Surveys 22(4) (1990)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Longley, P., Goodchild, M., Maguire, D., Rhind, D.: Geographical Information Systems, Principles, Techniques, Applications and Management. Wiley, Chichester (1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mainguenaud, M.: Modeling of the Geographical Information System Network Component. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 9(6), 575–593 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Menon, S., Aronson, P., Brown, T., Muller, M., Ryden, K., Morehouse, S.: Requirements and Design Considerations for Versioned Geographic Data Management. Unpublished manuscript, ESRI, Redlands (July 2000)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miller, H., Shaw, S.-L.: Geographic Information Systems for Transportation. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2001)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morehouse, S.: ARC/INFO: A Geo-relational Model for Spatial Information. In: Proceedings of AUTOCARTO 7, Washington, DC, March 1985, pp. 388–397 (1985)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oracle Corp: Oracle Database 10g: Oracle Spatial Network Data Model: technical white paper (May 2005)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Papadias, D., Zhang, J., Mamoulis, N., Tao, Y.: Query Processing in Spatial Network Databases. In: Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB 2003), Berlin, September 2003, pp. 802–813 (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Peuquet, D., Duan, N.: An Event-based Spatiotemporal Data Model (ESTDM) for Temporal Analysis of Geographic Data. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 9(1) (1995)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ralston, B.: GIS and its Traffic Assignment: Issues in Dynamic User-optimal Assignments. Geoinformatica 4(2), 231–243 (2000)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sciore, E.: Versioning and Configuration Management in an Object-oriented Data Model. International Journal on Very Large Data Bases 3(1) (1994)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shahabi, C., Kolahdouzan, M., Sharifzadeh, M.: A Road Network Embedding Technique for k-nearest Neighbor Search in Moving Object Databases. In: Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Symposium on Advances in Geographic Information Systems (ACMGIS 2002), McLean Virginia, November 2002, pp. 94–100 (2002)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shekhar, S., Liu, D.-R.: Ccam: A Connectivity-clustered Access Method for Networks and Network Computations. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 9(1), 102–119 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Speicys, L., Jensen, C., Kligys, A.: Computational Data Modeling for Network-constrained Moving Objects. In: Proceedings of the 11th ACM Intl. Symp. on Advances in Geographic Information Systems (ACMGIS 2003), New Orleans, November 2003, pp. 118–125 (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stokes, A., Balasubramanian, S., Harrison, S.: Building Versioning Applications with the Oracle Internet File System. Oracle Technical Brief, Oracle Corporation (2000)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Winter, S.: Modeling Costs of Turns in Route Planning. GeoInformatica 6(4), 345–361 (2002)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Worboys, M., Hearnshaw, H., Maguire, D.: Object-oriented Data Modeling for Spatial Databases. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 4(4), 369–383 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petko Bakalov
    • 1
  • Erik Hoel
    • 1
  • Sudhakar Menon
    • 1
  • Vassilis J. Tsotras
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Systems Research InstituteRedlandsUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations