Forest FIRE: A Taxonomy-based Toolkit of Tree Automata and Regular Tree Algorithms

  • Loek Cleophas
  • Kees Hemerik
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5642)


We report on a toolkit of tree automata and algorithms for tree acceptance, pattern matching, and parsing. Despite many applications, no large toolkit of such algorithms existed, complicating choice among them. Our toolkit’s design was guided by our taxonomies of such algorithms, and this is clearly reflected in its structure. We outline one taxonomy and discuss how its hierarchy determines the toolkit’s class and interface hierarchies. The toolkit, available at, contains about 50 tree algorithms and automata constructions.


Forest Fire Tree Algorithm Tree Automaton Tree Acceptance Pattern Match Algorithm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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    Cleophas, L.G.W.A.: Tree Algorithms: Two Taxonomies and a Toolkit. PhD thesis, Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology (2008),
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    Comon, H., Dauchet, M., Gilleron, R., Jacquemard, F., Lugiez, D., Tison, S., Tommasi, M.: Tree automata: Techniques and applications (2007),
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    Cleophas, L.: Forest FIRE and FIRE Wood: Tools for tree automata and tree algorithms. In: Post-proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Finite-State Methods and Natural Language Processing (FSMNLP 2008). IOS Press, Amsterdam (2009)Google Scholar
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    Strolenberg, R.: ForestFIRE & FIREWood, A Toolkit & GUI for Tree Algorithms. Master’s thesis, Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Eindhoven University of Technology (2007),
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    Watson, B.W.: Taxonomies and Toolkits of Regular Language Algorithms. PhD thesis, Dept. of Mathematics and Computing Science, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (1995),

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Loek Cleophas
    • 1
  • Kees Hemerik
    • 2
  1. 1.FASTAR Research Group, Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaRepublic of South Africa
  2. 2.SET Group, Department of Mathematics and Computer ScienceEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenThe Netherlands

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