A Distributed and Oblivious Heap

  • Christian Scheideler
  • Stefan Schmid
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5556)


This paper shows how to build and maintain a distributed heap which we call SHELL. In contrast to standard heaps, our heap is oblivious in the sense that its structure only depends on the nodes currently in the network but not on the past. This allows for fast join and leave operations which is desirable in open distributed systems with high levels of churn and frequent faults. In fact, a node fault or departure can be fixed in SHELL in a constant number of communication rounds, which significantly improves the best previous bound for distributed heaps. SHELL has interesting applications. First, we describe a robust distributed information system which is resilient to Sybil attacks of arbitrary scale. Second, we show how to organize heterogeneous nodes of arbitrary non-uniform capabilities in an overlay network such that the paths between any two nodes do not include nodes of lower capacities. This property is useful, e.g., for streaming. All these features can be achieved without sacrificing scalability: our heap has a de Bruijn like topology with node degree O(log2 n) and network diameter O(logn), n being the total number of nodes in the system.


Overlay Network Shell System Communication Round Sybil Attack Membership Change 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bazzi, R., Choi, Y., Gouda, M.: Hop Chains: Secure Routing and the Establishment of Distinct Identities. In: Proc. 10th Intl. Conf. on Principles of Distributed Systems, pp. 365–379 (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bazzi, R., Konjevod, G.: On the Establishment of Distinct Identities in Overlay Networks. In: Proc. 24th Symp. on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), pp. 312–320 (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhargava, A., Kothapalli, K., Riley, C., Scheideler, C., Thober, M.: Pagoda: A Dynamic Overlay Network for Routing, Data Management, and Multicasting. In: Proc. 16th Annual ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA), pp. 170–179 (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cormen, T., Leiserson, C., Rivest, R., Stein, C.: Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd edn. MIT Press, Cambridge (2001)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Danezis, G., Lesniewski-Laas, C., Kaashoek, F., Anderson, R.: Sybil-resistant DHT Routing. In: Proc. 10th European Symp. on Research in Computer Security, pp. 305–318 (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Douceur, J.R.: The Sybil Attack. In: Proc. 1st Int. Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS), pp. 251–260 (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fraigniaud, P., Gauron, P.: D2B: A de Bruijn Based Content-Addressable Network. Elsevier Theoretical Computer Science 355(1) (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Karger, D., Lehman, E., Leighton, T., Panigrahy, R., Levine, M., Lewin, D.: Consistent Hashing and Random Trees: Distributed Caching Protocols for Relieving Hot Spots on the World Wide Web. In: Proc. 29th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC), pp. 654–663 (1997)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Margolin, N., Levine, B.: Informant: Detecting Sybils Using Incentives. In: Proc. 11th Intl. Conf. on Financial Cryptography and Data Security, pp. 192–207 (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Naor, M., Wieder, U.: Novel Architectures for P2P Applications: the Continuous-Discrete Approach. In: Proc. 15th Annual ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA), pp. 50–59 (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nejdl, W., Wolpers, M., Siberski, W., Schmitz, C., Schlosser, M., Brunkhorst, I., Löser, A.: Super-Peer-Based Routing and Clustering Strategies for RDF-Based Peer-to-Peer Networks. In: Proc. 12th International Conference on World Wide Web (WWW), pp. 536–543 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Plaxton, C.G., Rajaraman, R., Richa, A.W.: Accessing Nearby Copies of Replicated Objects in a Distributed Environment. In: Proc. 9th Annual ACM Symposium on Parallel Algorithms and Architectures (SPAA), pp. 311–320 (1997)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ratnasamy, S., Francis, P., Handley, M., Karp, R., Schenker, S.: A Scalable Content-Addressable Network. In: Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications, pp. 161–172 (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rowstron, A., Druschel, P.: Pastry: Scalable, Decentralized Object Location, and Routing for Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Systems. In: Guerraoui, R. (ed.) Middleware 2001. LNCS, vol. 2218, pp. 329–350. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Scheideler, C., Schmid, S.: A Distributed and Oblivious Heap. In: Technical University Munich, Tech Report TUM-I0906 (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shavit, N., Zemach, A.: Scalable Concurrent Priority Queue Algorithms. In: Proc. 18th Annual ACM Symposium on Principals of Distributed Computing (PODC), pp. 113–122 (1999)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shavit, N., Zemach, A.: Combining Funnels: A Dynamic Approach to Software Combining. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing 60 (2000)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Srivatsa, M., Gedik, B., Liu, L.: Large Scaling Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks with Heterogeneity-Aware Topology and Routing. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 17(11), 1277–1293 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stoica, I., Morris, R., Karger, D., Kaashoek, F., Balakrishnan, H.: Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Service for Internet Applications. In: Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications (2001)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yu, H., Kaminsky, M., Gibbons, P., Flaxman, A.: SybilGuard: Defending Against Sybil Attacks via Social Networks. In: Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communications (2006)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhao, B., Kubiatowicz, J.D., Joseph, A.: Tapestry: An Infrastructure for Fault-Tolerant Widearea Location and Routing. Technical report, UC Berkeley, Computer Science Division Tecnical Report UCB/CSD-01-1141 (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Scheideler
    • 1
  • Stefan Schmid
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für InformatikTechnische Universität MünchenGarchingGermany

Personalised recommendations