Coronal Mass Ejections from Sunspot and Non-Sunspot Regions
Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) originate from closed magnetic field regions on the Sun, which are active regions and quiescent filament regions. The energetic populations such as halo CMEs, CMEs associated with magnetic clouds, geoeffective CMEs, CMEs associated with solar energetic particles and interplanetary type II radio bursts, and shock-driving CMEs have been found to originate from sunspot regions. The CME and flare occurrence rates are found to be correlated with the sunspot number, but the correlations are significantly weaker during the maximum phase compared to the rise and declining phases. We suggest that the weaker correlation results from high-latitude CMEs from the polar crown filament regions that are not related to sunspots.
KeywordsSolar Wind Coronal Mass Ejection Sunspot Number Geomagnetic Storm Magnetic Cloud
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