Animated Demonstrations: Evidence of Improved Performance Efficiency and the Worked Example Effect

  • David Lewis
  • Ann Barron
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5619)


The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of animated demonstrations, to determine if those using animated demonstrations would exhibit the worked example effect [1], and a delayed performance decrement, described as Palmiter’s animation deficit [2], [3]. The study measured relative condition efficiency (RCE) [4] and developed a construct called performance efficiency (PE). Results revealed the animated demonstration groups assembled the week one problem in significantly less time than the practice group, providing evidence for the worked example effect with animated demonstrations. In addition, subjects from the demonstration groups were significantly more efficient (given performance efficiency) than those from the practice group. Finally, group performance did not differ a week later, providing no evidence of Palmiter’s animation deficit.


Animation cognitive load performance efficiency 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Lewis
    • 1
  • Ann Barron
    • 1
  1. 1.University of South FloridaTampaUSA

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