A Concurrent Portfolio Approach to SMT Solving

  • Christoph M. Wintersteiger
  • Youssef Hamadi
  • Leonardo de Moura
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5643)


With the availability of multi-core processors and large-scale computing clusters, the study of parallel algorithms has been revived throughout the industry. We present a portfolio approach to deciding the satisfiability of SMT formulas, based on the recent success of related algorithms for the SAT problem. Our parallel version of Z3 outperforms the sequential solver, with speedups of well over an order of magnitude on many benchmarks.


  1. 1.
    Audemard, G., Bordeaux, L., Hamadi, Y., Jabbour, S., Sais, L.: A Generalized Framework for Conflict Analysis. In: Kleine Büning, H., Zhao, X. (eds.) SAT 2008. LNCS, vol. 4996, pp. 21–27. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    de Moura, L., Bjørner, N.: Efficient E-matching for SMT Solvers. In: Pfenning, F. (ed.) CADE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4603, pp. 183–198. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    de Moura, L., Bjørner, N.: Model-based Theory Combination. In: SMT 2007 (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    de Moura, L., Bjørner, N.: Z3: An Efficient SMT Solver. In: Ramakrishnan, C.R., Rehof, J. (eds.) TACAS 2008. LNCS, vol. 4963, pp. 337–340. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hamadi, Y., Jabbour, S., Sais, L.: ManySAT: A Parallel SAT Solver. Journal of Satisfiability (2008) (to appear)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hamadi, Y., Jabbour, S., Sais, L.: ManySAT: Solver Description. Technical Report MSR-TR-2008-83, Microsoft Research (May 2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christoph M. Wintersteiger
    • 1
  • Youssef Hamadi
    • 2
  • Leonardo de Moura
    • 3
  1. 1.Computer Systems InstituteETH ZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Microsoft Research CambridgeCambridgeUK
  3. 3.Microsoft Research, One Microsoft WayRedmondUSA

Personalised recommendations