Games through Nested Fixpoints
In this paper we consider two-player zero-sum payoff games on finite graphs, both in the deterministic as well as in the stochastic setting. In the deterministic setting, we consider total-payoff games which have been introduced as a refinement of mean-payoff games [10, 18]. In the stochastic setting, our class is a turn-based variant of liminf-payoff games [4, 15, 16]. In both settings, we provide a non-trivial characterization of the values through nested fixpoint equations. The characterization of the values of liminf-payoff games moreover shows that solving liminf-payoff games is polynomial-time reducible to solving stochastic parity games. We construct practical algorithms for solving the occurring nested fixpoint equations based on strategy iteration. As a corollary we obtain that solving deterministic total-payoff games and solving stochastic liminf-payoff games is in UP ∩ co− UP.
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