Alternative reproductive tactics and life history phenotypes

  • Michael Taborsky
  • H. Jane Brockmann

Abstract

Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) coexisting within a population are found in many organisms. Their existence has been an enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology. Why should selection produce distinctly different alternatives to reach the same goal? How can such alternative solutions coexist in a population? What determines their evolutionary stability? Here we outline ultimate and proximate mechanisms responsible for the origin, coexistence and stability of ARTs. We argue that behavioural and reproductive polymorphisms often reflect different allocation decisions in response to trade-offs in reproduction or life-history optima that may involve heritable threshold responses to environmental variation. Alternative tactics may either be fixed for life or plastic, with simultaneous or sequential switches between tactics. General principles include disruptive selection, negative frequency dependence, density dependence, and an interaction between genetic and environmental components to generate alternative tactics. ARTs are found often where individuals invest heavily in reproduction in a way that can be circumvented and exploited by competitors, which reflects disruptive selection on reproductive investment. This often coincides with consistent size variation between individuals pursuing bourgeois and parasitic tactics.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahlund M, Andersson M (2001) Female ducks can double their reproduction. Nature 414:600-601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcock J (1999) The nesting behavior of Dawson’s burrowing bee, Amegilla dawsoni (Hymenoptera: Anthophorini), and the production of offspring of different sizes. J Insect Behav 12:363-384Google Scholar
  3. Alcock J, Jones CE, Buchmann SL (1977) Male mating strategies in the bee Centris pallida Fox (Anthophoridae: Hymenoptera). Am Nat 111:145-155Google Scholar
  4. Alonzo SH (2008) Conflict between the sexes and alternative reproductive tactics within a sex. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 435-450Google Scholar
  5. Alonzo SH, Sinervo B (2001) Mate choice games, context-dependent good genes, and genetic cycles in the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 49:176-186Google Scholar
  6. Alonzo SH, Warner RR (2000) Female choice, conflict between the sexes and the evolution of male alternative reproductive behaviours. Evol Ecol Res 2:149-170Google Scholar
  7. Alonzo SH, Taborsky M, Wirtz P (2000) Male alternative reproductive behaviors in a Mediterranean wrasse, Symphodus ocellatus: evidence from otoliths for multiple life-history pathways. Evol Ecol Res 2:997-1007Google Scholar
  8. Andersson M (1994) Sexual Selection. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  9. Andrés JA, Sánchez-Guillén RA, Rivera AC (2002) Evolution of female colour polymorphism in damselflies: testing the hypotheses. Anim Behav 63:677-685Google Scholar
  10. Arak A (1988) Callers and satellites in the natterjack toad: evolutionarily stable decision rules. Anim Behav 36:416-432Google Scholar
  11. Arnold AP, Breedlove SM (1985) Organizational and activational effects of sex steroids on brain and behavior: a reanalysis. Horm Behav 19:469-498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Aubin-Horth N, Dodson JJ (2004) Influence of individual body size and variable thresholds on the incidence of a sneaker male reproductive tactic in Atlantic salmon. Evolution 58:136-144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Aubin-Horth N, Letcher BH, Hofmann HA (2005a) Interaction of rearing environment and reproductive tactic on gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon. J Hered 96:261-278Google Scholar
  14. Aubin-Horth N, Landry CR, Letcher BH, Hofmann HA (2005b) Alternative life histories shape brain gene expression profiles in males of the same population. Proc R Soc Lond B 272:1655-1662Google Scholar
  15. Awata S, Munehara H, Kohda M (2005) Social system and reproduction of helpers in a cooperatively breeding cichlid fish (Julidochromis ornatus) in Lake Tanganyika: field observations and parentage analyses. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 58:506-516Google Scholar
  16. Bailey NW, McNabb JR, Zuk M (2008) Preexisting behavior facilitated the loss of a sexual signal in the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Behav Ecol 19:202-207Google Scholar
  17. Balshine-Earn S, Neat FC, Reid H, Taborsky M (1998) Paying to stay or paying to breed? Field evidence for direct benefits of helping behavior in a cooperatively breeding fish. Behav Ecol 9:432-438Google Scholar
  18. Bass AH, Forlano PM (2008) Neuroendocrine mechanisms of alternative reproductive tactics: the chemical language of reproductive and social plasticity. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 109-131Google Scholar
  19. Bass AH, Grober MS (2001) Social and neural modulation of sexual plasticity in teleost fish. Brain Behav Evol 57:293-300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bass AH, Grober MS (2009) Reproductive plasticity in fish: evolutionary lability in the patterning of neuroendocrine and behavioral traits underlying divergent sexual phenotypes. In: Pfaff DW, Arnold AP, Etgen AM, Fahrbach SE, Rubin RT (eds) Hormones, Brain and Behavior. Vol 1. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 579-609Google Scholar
  21. Baum D, Laughton R, Armstrong JD, Metcalfe NB (2004) Altitudinal variation in the relationship between growth and maturation rate in salmon parr. J Anim Ecol 73:253-260Google Scholar
  22. Bergmüller R, Taborsky M (2005) Experimental manipulation of helping in a cooperative breeder: helpers ‘pay to stay’ by pre-emptive appeasement. Anim Behav 69:19-28Google Scholar
  23. Bergmüller R, Heg D, Taborsky M (2005) Helpers in a cooperatively breeding cichlid stay and pay or disperse and breed, depending on ecological constraints. Proc R Soc Lond B 272:325-331Google Scholar
  24. Birkhead TR, Møller AP (1992) Sperm Competition in Birds: Evolutionary Causes and Consequences. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Bleay C, Comendant T, Sinervo B (2007) An experimental test of frequencydependent selection on male mating strategy in the field. Proc R Soc Lond B 274:2019-2025Google Scholar
  26. Blumer LS (1979) Male parental care in the bony fishes Q Rev Biol 54:149-161Google Scholar
  27. Blumer LS (1982) A bibliography and categorization of bony fishes exhibiting parental care. Zool J Linn Soc 76:1-22Google Scholar
  28. Brockmann HJ (1993) Parasitizing conspecifics: comparisons between Hymenoptera and birds. Trends Ecol Evol 8:2-4Google Scholar
  29. Brockmann HJ (2001) The evolution of alternative strategies and tactics. Adv Stud Behav 30:1-51Google Scholar
  30. Brockmann HJ (2003) Male competition and satellite behavior. In: Shuster CN, Barlow RB, Brockmann HJ (eds) The American Horseshoe Crab. Harvard University Press, Cambridge/MA, pp 50-82Google Scholar
  31. Brockmann HJ (2008) Alternative reproductive tactis in insects. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 177-223Google Scholar
  32. Brockmann HJ, Dawkins R (1979) Joint nesting in a digger wasp as an evolutionarity stable preadoption to social life. Behavior 71:203-244Google Scholar
  33. Brockmann HJ, Penn D (1992) Male mating tactics in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Anim Behav 44:653-665Google Scholar
  34. Brockmann HJ, Taborsky M (2008) Alternative reproductive tactics and the evolution of alternative allocation phenotypes. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 25-51Google Scholar
  35. Brockmann HJ, Grafen A, Dawkins R (1979) Evolutionarily stable nesting strategy in a digger wasp. J Theor Biol 77:473-496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Brockmann HJ, Oliveira RF, Taborsky M (2008) Integrating mechanisms and function: prospects for future research. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 471-489Google Scholar
  37. Brouwer L, Heg D, Taborsky M (2005) Experimental evidence for helper effects in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Behav Ecol 16:667-673Google Scholar
  38. Bruintjes R, Taborsky M (2008) Helpers in a cooperative breeder pay a high price to stay: effects of demand, helper size and sex. Anim Behav 75:1843-1850Google Scholar
  39. Cade WH, Cade ES (1992) Male mating success, calling and searching behavior at high and low densities in the field cricket, Gryllus integer. Anim Behav 43:49-56Google Scholar
  40. Caro TM, Bateson P (1986) Organization and ontogeny of alternative tactics. Anim Behav 34:1483-1499Google Scholar
  41. Charnov EL (1982) The Theory of Sex Allocation. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  42. Clutton-Brock TH (1991) The Evolution of Parental Care. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  43. Clutton-Brock TH, Albon SD, Guinness FE (1986) Great expectations: dominance, breeding success and offspring sex ratios in red deer. Anim Behav 34:460-471Google Scholar
  44. Connor RC, Read AJ, Wrangham R (2000) Male reproductive strategies and social bonds. In: Mann J, Connor RC, Tyack PL, Whitehead H (eds) Cetacean Societies: Field Studies of Dolphins and Whales. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 247-269Google Scholar
  45. Constantz GD (1975). Behavioural ecology of mating in the male Gila topminnow, Poeciliopsis occidentalis. Ecology 56:966-973Google Scholar
  46. Correa C, Baeza JA, Hinojosa IA, Thiel M (2003) Male dominance hierarchy and mating tactics in the rock shrimp Rhynchocinetes typus (Decapoda: Caridea). J Crustacean Biol 23:33-45Google Scholar
  47. Crnokrak P, Roff DA (1998) The genetic basis of the trade-off between calling and wing morph in males of the cricket Gryllus firmus. Evolution 52:1111-1118Google Scholar
  48. Danforth BN, Desjardins CA (1999) Male dimorphism in Perdita portalis (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae) has arisen from preexisting allometric patterns. Insectes Soc 46:18-28Google Scholar
  49. Danforth BN, Neff JL (1992) Male polymorphism and polyethism in Perdita texana (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 85:616-626Google Scholar
  50. Dawkins R (1980) Good strategy or evolutionarily stable strategy? In: Barlow GW, Silverberg J (eds) Sociobiology: Beyond Nature/Nurture? Reports, definitions, and debate. Westview Press, Boulder, pp 331-367Google Scholar
  51. Dempster ER, Lerner IM (1950) Heritability of threshold characters. Genetics 35:212-236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Denno RF (1994) The evolution of dispersal polymorphisms in insects – the influence of habitats, host plants and mates. Res Popul Ecol 36:127-135Google Scholar
  53. Denno RF, Douglass LW, Jacobs D (1985) Crowding and host plant nutrition: environmental determinants of wing form in Prokelisia marginata. Ecology 66:1588-1596Google Scholar
  54. Denno RF, Roderick GK, Peterson MA, Huberty AF, Döbel HG, Eubanks MD, Losey JE, Langellotto GA (1996) Habitat persistence underlies intraspecific variation in the dispersal strategies of planthoppers. Ecol Monogr 66:389-408Google Scholar
  55. Dickinson JL (2004) A test of the importance of direct and indirect fitness benefits for helping decisions in western bluebirds. Behav Ecol 15:233-238Google Scholar
  56. Dierkes P, Taborsky M, Kohler U (1999) Reproductive parasitism of broodcare helpers in a cooperatively breeding fish. Behav Ecol 10:510-515Google Scholar
  57. Dierkes P, Heg D, Taborsky M, Skubic E, Achmann R (2005) Genetic relatedness in groups is sex-specific and declines with age of helpers in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Ecol Lett 8:968-975Google Scholar
  58. Dierkes P, Taborsky M, Achmann R (2008) Multiple paternity in the cooperatively breeding fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 62:1581-1589Google Scholar
  59. Dingle H, Winchell R (1997) Juvenile hormone as a mediator of plasticity in insect life histories. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 35:359-373Google Scholar
  60. Dominey WJ (1980) Female mimicry in male bluegill sunfish – a genetic polymorphism? Nature 284:546-548Google Scholar
  61. Dominey WJ (1984) Alternative mating tactics and evolutionarily stable strategies. Am Zool 24:385-396Google Scholar
  62. Dunbar RIM (1982) Intraspecific variations in mating strategy. In: Bateson PPG, Klopfer PH (eds) Perspectives in Ethology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 385-431Google Scholar
  63. Dunning JB Jr (1992) CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  64. Eadie JM, Fryxell JM (1992) Density dependence, frequency dependence, and alternative nesting strategies in goldeneyes. Am Nat 140:621-641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Emlen DJ (1994) Environmental control of horn length dimorphism in the beetle Onthophagus acuminatus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). Proc R Soc Lond B 256:131-136Google Scholar
  66. Emlen DJ (1996) Artificial selection on horn length body size allometry in the horned beetle Onthophagus acuminatus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Evolution 50:1219-1230Google Scholar
  67. Emlen DJ (1997) Alternative reproductive tactics and male-dimorphism in the horned beetle Onthophagus acuminatus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 41:335-341Google Scholar
  68. Emlen DJ (2008) The roles of genes and the environment in the expression and evolution of alternative tactics. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 85-108Google Scholar
  69. Emlen DJ, Nijhout HF (1999) Hormonal control of male horn length dimorphism in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J Insect Physiol 45:45-53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Emlen DJ, Nijhout HF (2000) The development and evolution of exaggerated morphologies in insects. Annu Rev Entomol 45:661-708PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Emlen DJ, Nijhout HF (2001) Hormonal control of male horn length dimorphism in Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): a second critical period of sensitivity to juvenile hormone. J Insect Physiol 47:1045-1054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Emlen ST, Oring LW (1977) Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems. Science 197:215-223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Erbelding-Denk C, Schröder JH, Schartl M, Nanda I, Schmid M, Epplen JT (1994) Male polymorphism in Limia perugiae (Pisces: Poeciliidae). Behav Gen 24:95-101Google Scholar
  74. Falconer DS (1952) The problem of environment and selection. Am Nat 86:293-298Google Scholar
  75. Falconer DS, Mackay TFC (1996) Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Longman, HarlowGoogle Scholar
  76. Farr JA (1980) Social behavior patterns as determinants of reproductive success in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters (Pisces, Poeciliidae) – an experimental study of the effects of intermale competition, female choice, and sexual selection. Behaviour 74:38-91Google Scholar
  77. Feh C (1999) Alliances and reproductive success in Camargue stallions. Anim Behav 57:705-713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Field J (1994) Selection of host nests by intraspecific nest-parasitic digger wasps. Anim Behav 48:113-118Google Scholar
  79. Fitzpatrick JL, Desjardins JK, Stiver KA, Montgomerie R, Balshine S (2006) Male reproductive suppression in the cooperatively breeding fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Behav Ecol 17:25-33Google Scholar
  80. Forchhammer MC, Boomsma JJ (1998) Optimal mating strategies in nonterritorial ungulates: a general model tested on muskoxen. Behav Ecol 9:136-143Google Scholar
  81. Forester DC, Lykens DV (1986) Significance of satellite males in a population of spring peepers (Hyla crucifer). Copeia 1986:719-724Google Scholar
  82. Frankino WA, Pfennig DW (2001) Condition-dependent expression of trophic polyphenism: effects of individual size and competitive ability. Evol Ecol Res 3:939-951Google Scholar
  83. Gadgil M (1972) Male dimorphism as a consequence of sexual selection. Am Nat 106:574-580Google Scholar
  84. Garcia-Vazquez E, Moran P, Perez J, Martinez JL, Izquierdo JI, de Gaudemar B, Beall E (2002) Interspecific barriers between salmonids when hybridisation is due to sneak mating. Heredity 89:288-292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Gonçalves D, Teles M, Alpedrinha J, Oliveira RF (2008) Brain and gonadal aromatase activity and steroid hormone levels in female and polymorphic males of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo. Horm Behav 54:717-725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gosling LM, Petrie M (1990) Lekking in topi: a consequence of satellite behaviour by small males at hotspots. Anim Behav 40:272-287Google Scholar
  87. Gross MR (1982) Sneakers, satellites and parentals – polymorphic mating strategies in North-American sunfishes. Z Tierpsychol 60:1-26Google Scholar
  88. Gross MR (1984) Sunfish, salmon, and the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies and tactics in fishes. In: Potts GW, Wootton RJ (eds) Fish Reproduction: Strategies and Tactics. Academic Press, London, pp 55-75Google Scholar
  89. Gross MR (1985) Disruptive selection for alternative life histories in salmon. Nature 313:47-48Google Scholar
  90. Gross MR (1996) Alternative reproductive strategies and tactics: diversity within sexes. Trends Ecol Evol 11:92-98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Halama KJ, Reznick DN (2001) Adaptation, optimality, and the meaning of phenotypic variation in natural populations. In: Orzack SH, Sober E (eds) Adaptationism and Optimality. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 242-272Google Scholar
  92. Hamilton IM, Heg D (2008) Sex differences in the effect of social status on the growth of subordinates in a co-operatively breeding cichlid. J Fish Biol 72:1079-1088Google Scholar
  93. Hansell M (2005) Animal Architecture. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  94. Harcourt AH, de Waal FBM (1992) Coalitions and Alliances in Humans and Other Animals. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  95. Hartfelder K, Emlen DJ (2005) Endocrine control of insect polyphenism. In: Gilbert LI, Iatrou K, Gill SS (eds) Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science. Vol 3: Endocrinology. Elsevier, Boston, pp 651-703Google Scholar
  96. Hazel WN, Smock R, Johnson MD (1990) A polygenic model for the evolution and maintenance of conditional strategies. Proc R Soc Lond B 242:181-187Google Scholar
  97. Hazel W, Smock R, Lively CM (2004) The ecological genetics of conditional strategies. Am Nat 163:888-900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Heath DD, Devlin RH, Heath JW, Iwama GK (1994) Genetic, environmental and interaction effects on the incidence of jacking in Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Chinook salmon). Heredity 72:146-154Google Scholar
  99. Heg D, Hamilton IM (2008) Tug-of-war over reproduction in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 62:1249-1257Google Scholar
  100. Heg D, Bachar Z, Brouwer L, Taborsky M (2004a) Predation risk is an ecological constraint for helper dispersal in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Proc R Soc Lond B 271:2367-2374Google Scholar
  101. Heg D, Bender N, Hamilton IM (2004b) Strategic growth decisions in helper cichlids. Proc R Soc Lond B 271:S505-S508Google Scholar
  102. Heg D, Bergmüller R, Bonfils D, Otti O, Bachar Z, Burri R, Heckel G, Taborsky M (2006) Cichlids do not adjust reproductive skew to the availability of independent breeding options. Behav Ecol 17:419-429Google Scholar
  103. Heg D, Jutzeler E, Bonfils D, Mitchell JS (2008) Group composition affects male reproductive partitioning in a cooperatively breeding cichlid. Mol Ecol 17:4359-4370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Heg D, Jutzeler E, Mitchell JS, Hamilton IM (2009) Helpful female subordinate cichlids are more likely to reproduce. PLoS ONE 4:e5458, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005458Google Scholar
  105. Henson SA, Warner RR (1997) Male and female alternative reproductive behaviors in fishes: a new approach using intersexual dynamics. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 28:571-592Google Scholar
  106. Hews DK, Knapp R, Moore MC (1994) Early exposure to androgens affects adult expression of alternative male types in tree lizards. Horm Behav 28:96-115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hogan-Warburg AJ (1966) Social behavior of the ruff, Philomachus pugnax (L.). Ardea 54:109-229Google Scholar
  108. Hori M (1993) Frequency-dependent natural selection in the handedness of scaleeating cichlid fish. Science 260:216-219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Howard RD (1984) Alternative mating behaviors of young male bullfrogs. Am Zool 24:397-406Google Scholar
  110. Hugie DM, Lank DB (1997) The resident’s dilemma: a female choice model for the evolution of alternative mating strategies in lekking male ruffs (Philomachus pugnax). Behav Ecol 8:218-225Google Scholar
  111. Hutchings JA, Jones MEB (1998) Life history variation and growth rate thresholds for maturity in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55:22-47Google Scholar
  112. Jennions MD, Petrie M (2000) Why do females mate multiply? A review of the genetic benefits. Biol Rev 75:21-64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Johnstone RA (2000) Models of reproductive skew: a review and synthesis. Ethology 106:5-26Google Scholar
  114. Jones MW, Hutchings JA (2002) Individual variation in Atlantic salmon fertilization success: implications for effective population size. Ecol Appl 12:184-193Google Scholar
  115. Jukema J, Piersma T (2006) Permanent female mimics in a lekking shorebird. Biol Lett 2:161-164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Kallman KD (1984) A new look at sex determination in poeciliid fishes. In: Turner BJ (ed) Evolutionary Genetics of Fishes. Plenum Press, New York, pp 95-171Google Scholar
  117. Kallman KD (1989) Genetic control of size at maturity in Xiphophorus. In: Meffe GK, Snelson FF Jr (eds) Ecology and Evolution of Livebearing Fishes (Poeciliidae). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs/NJ, pp 163-184Google Scholar
  118. Keller L, Reeve HK (1994) Partitioning of reproduction in animal societies. Trends Ecol Evol 9:98-102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Kellog KA, Markert JA, Stauffer JR, Kocher TD (1998) Intraspecific brood mixing and reduced polyandry in a maternal mouth-brooding cichlid. Behav Ecol 9:309-312Google Scholar
  120. Kraak SBM, Pen I (2002) Sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates. In: Hardy ICW (ed) Sex Ratios: Concepts and Research Methods. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 158-177Google Scholar
  121. Krüger O (2008) Alternative reproductive tactics in birds. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 343-355Google Scholar
  122. Lande R, Arnold SJ (1983) The measurement of selection on correlated characters. Evolution 37:1210-1226Google Scholar
  123. Langbein J, Thirgood SJ (1989) Variation in mating systems of fallow deer (Dama dama) in relation to ecology. Ethology 83:195-214Google Scholar
  124. Langellotto GA, Denno RF (2001) Benefits of dispersal in patchy environments: mate location by males of a wing-dimorphic insect. Ecology 82:1870-1878Google Scholar
  125. Lank DB, Smith CM, Hanotte O, Burke T, Cooke F (1995) Genetic polymorphism for alternative mating behaviour in lekking male ruff Philomachus pugnax. Nature 378:59-62Google Scholar
  126. Le Boeuf BJ (1974) Male-male competition and reproductive success in elephant seals. Am Zool 14:163-176Google Scholar
  127. Lee JSF (2005) Alternative reproductive tactics and status-dependent selection. Behav Ecol 16:566-570Google Scholar
  128. Levins R (1968) Evolution in Changing Environments: Some Theoretical Explorations. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  129. Lively CM (1986) Canalization versus developmental conversion in a spatially variable environment. Am Nat 128:561-572Google Scholar
  130. Lloyd DG (1987) Parallels between sexual strategies and other allocation strategies. In: Stearns SC (ed) The Evolution of Sex and Its Consequences. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, pp 263-281Google Scholar
  131. Lucas JR, Howard RD (1995) On alternative reproductive tactics in anurans: dynamic games with density and frequency dependence. Am Nat 146:365-397Google Scholar
  132. Lucas JR, Howard RD (2008) Modeling alternative mating tactics as dynamic games. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 63-82Google Scholar
  133. Lucas JR, Howard RD, Palmer JG (1996) Callers and satellites: chorus behaviour in anurans as a stochastic dynamic game. Anim Behav 51:501-518Google Scholar
  134. Magnhagen C (1992) Alternative reproductive behaviour in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps: an ontogenetic gradient? Anim Behav 44:182-184Google Scholar
  135. Martin E, Taborsky M (1997) Alternative male mating tactics in a cichlid, Pelvicachromis pulcher: a comparison of reproductive effort and success. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 41:311-319Google Scholar
  136. Maynard Smith J (1982) Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  137. Mboko SK, Kohda M (1999) Piracy mating by large males in a monogamous substrate-breeding cichlid in Lake Tanganyika. J Ethol 17:51-55Google Scholar
  138. Mitchell JS, Jutzeler E, Heg D, Taborsky M (2009a) Gender differences in the costs that subordinate group members impose on dominant males in a cooperative breeder. Ethology 115:1162-1174Google Scholar
  139. Mitchell JS, Jutzeler E, Heg D, Taborsky M (2009b) Dominant members of cooperatively-breeding groups adjust their behaviour in response to the sexes of subordinates. Behaviour 146:1665-1686Google Scholar
  140. Moczek AP, Emlen DJ (2000) Male horn dimorphism in the scarab beetle, Onthophagus taurus: do alternative reproductive tactics favour alternative phenotypes? Anim Behav 59:459-466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Moczek AP, Nijhout HF (2002) Developmental mechanisms of threshold evolution in a polyphenic beetle. Evol Dev 4:252-264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Moore MC (1991) Application of organization-activation theory to alternative male reproductive strategies: a review. Horm Behav 25:154-179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Moore MC, Hews DK, Knapp R (1998) Hormonal control and evolution of alternative male phenotypes: generalizations of models for sexual differentiation. Am Zool 38:133-151Google Scholar
  144. Moran NA (1992) The evolutionary maintenance of alternative phenotypes. Am Nat 139:971-989Google Scholar
  145. Morris MR, Nicoletto PF, Hesselman E (2003) A polymorphism in female preference for a polymorphic male trait in the swordtail fish Xiphophorus cortezi. Anim Behav 65:45-52Google Scholar
  146. Muñoz RC, Warner RR (2004) Testing a new version of the size-advantage hypothesis for sex change: sperm competition and size-skew effects in the bucktooth parrotfish, Sparisoma radians. Behav Ecol 15:129-136Google Scholar
  147. Neff BD (2004) Increased performance of offspring sired by parasitic males in bluegill sunfish. Behav Ecol 15:327-331Google Scholar
  148. Neff BD (2008) Alternative mating tactics and mate choice for good genes or good care. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 421-434Google Scholar
  149. Neff BD, Gross MR (2001) Dynamic adjustment of parental care in response to perceived paternity. Proc R Soc Lond B 268:1559-1565Google Scholar
  150. Nijhout HF (1999) Hormonal control in larval development and evolution: insects. In: Hall BK, Wake MH (eds) The Origin and Evolution of Larval Forms. Academic Press, New York, pp 217-254Google Scholar
  151. Nijhout HF (2003) Development and evolution of adaptive polyphenisms. Evol Dev 5:9-18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Nijhout HF, Wheeler DE (1982) Juvenile hormone and the physiological basis of insect polymorphisms. Q Rev Biol 57:109-133Google Scholar
  153. Oliveira RF (2004) Social modulation of androgens in vertebrates: mechanisms and function. Adv Stud Behav 34:165-239Google Scholar
  154. Oliveira RF, Gonçalves EJ, Santos RS (2001) Gonadal investment of young males in two blenniid fishes with alternative mating tactics. J Fish Biol 59:459-462Google Scholar
  155. Oliveira RF, Carvalho N, Miranda J, Gonçalves EJ, Grober M, Santos RS (2002) The relationship between the presence of satellite males and nest-holders’ mating success in the Azorean rock-pool blenny Parablennius sanguinolentus parvicornis. Ethology 108:223-235Google Scholar
  156. Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (2008a) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  157. Oliveira RF, Canário AVM, Ros AFH (2008b) Hormones and alternative reproductive tactics in vertebrates. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 132-174Google Scholar
  158. Packer C (1977) Reciprocal altruism in Papio anubis. Nature 265:441-443Google Scholar
  159. Parker GA (1984) Evolutionarily stable strategies. In: Krebs JR, Davies NB (eds) Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 30-61Google Scholar
  160. Pemberton JM, Coltman DW, Smith JA, Bancroft DR (2004) Mating patterns and male breeding success. In: Clutton-Brock TH, Pemberton J (eds) Soay Sheep: Dynamics and Selection in an Island Population. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 166-189Google Scholar
  161. Perrill SA, Gerhardt HC, Daniel RE (1982) Mating strategy shifts in male green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea): an experimental study. Anim Behav 30:43-48Google Scholar
  162. Petrie M, Møller AP (1991) Laying eggs in other’s nests: intraspecific brood parasitism in birds. Trends Ecol Evol 6:315-320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Piché J, Hutchings JA, Blanchard W (2008) Genetic variation in threshold reaction norms for alternative reproductive tactics in male Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. Proc R Soc Lond B 275:1571-1575Google Scholar
  164. Pienaar J, Greeff JM (2003) Different male morphs of Otitesella pseudoserrata fig wasps have equal fitness but are not determined by different alleles. Ecol Lett 6:286-289Google Scholar
  165. Pizzo A, Roggero A, Palestrini C, Moczek AP, Rolandoa A (2008) Rapid shape divergences between natural and introduced populations of a horned beetle partly mirror divergences between species. Evol Dev 10:166-175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Plaistow SJ, Tsubaki Y (2000) A selective trade-off for territoriality and nonterritoriality in the polymorphic damselfly Mnais costalis. Proc R Soc Lond B 267:969-975Google Scholar
  167. Plaistow SJ, Johnstone RA, Colegrave N, Spencer M (2004) Evolution of alternative mating tactics: conditional versus mixed strategies. Behav Ecol 15:534-542Google Scholar
  168. Radwan J (1993) The adaptive significance of male polymorphism in the acarid mite Caloglyphus berlesei. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 33:201-208Google Scholar
  169. Radwan J (1995) Male morph determination in two species of acarid mites. Heredity 74:669-673Google Scholar
  170. Radwan J, Unrug J, Tomkins JL (2002) Status-dependence and morphological trade-offs in the expression of a sexually selected character in the mite, Sancassania berlesei. J Evol Biol 15:744-752Google Scholar
  171. Reichard M, Le Comber SC, Smith C (2007) Sneaking from a female perspective. Anim Behav 74:679-688Google Scholar
  172. Renn SCP, Aubin-Horth N, Hofmann HA (2008) Fish and chips: functional genomics of social plasticity in an African cichlid fish. J Exp Biol 211:3041-3056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Repka J, Gross MR (1995) The evolutionarily stable strategy under individual condition and tactic frequency. J Theor Biol 176:27-31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Rhen T, Crews D (2002) Variation in reproductive behaviour within a sex: neural systems and endocrine activation. J Neuroendocrinol 14:517-531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Ribbink AJ (1977) Cuckoo among Lake Malawi chichlid fish. Nature 267:243-244Google Scholar
  176. Rios-Cardenas O, Tudor MS, Morris MR (2007) Female preference variation has implications for the maintenance of an alternative mating strategy in a swordtail fish. Anim Behav 74:633-640Google Scholar
  177. Robertson DR, Reinboth R, Bruce RW (1982) Gonochorism, protogyneous sexchange and spawning in three sparisomatinine parrotfishes from the western Indian Ocean. Bull Mar Sci 32:868-879Google Scholar
  178. Rodgers EW, Earley RL, Grober MS (2007) Social status determines sexual phenotype in the bi-directional sex changing bluebanded goby Lythrypnus dalli. J Fish Biol 70:1660-1668Google Scholar
  179. Roff DA (1990) Antagonistic pleiotropy and the evolution of wing dimorphism in the sand cricket, Gryllus firmus. Heredity 65:169-177Google Scholar
  180. Roff DA (1996) The evolution of threshold traits in animals. Q Rev Biol 71:3-35Google Scholar
  181. Roff DA (1998) Evolution of threshold traits: the balance between directional selection, drift and mutation. Heredity 80:25-32Google Scholar
  182. Ross RM (1990) The evolution of sex-change mechanisms in fishes. Environ Biol Fishes 29:81-93Google Scholar
  183. Rowland WJ (1979) Stealing fertilizations in the fourspine stickleback, Apeltes quadracus. Am Nat 114:602-604Google Scholar
  184. Rowland JM, Emlen DJ (2009) Two thresholds, three male forms result in facultative male trimorphism in beetles. Science 323:773-776PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Ryan MJ, Causey BA (1989) Alternative mating behavior in the swordtails Xiphophorus nigrensis and Xiphophorus pygmaeus (Pisces, Poeciliidae). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 24:341-348Google Scholar
  186. Ryan MJ, Wagner WE (1987) Asymmetries in mating preferences between species: female swordtails prefer heterospecific males. Science 236:595-597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Ryan MJ, Pease CM, Morris MR (1992) A genetic polymorphism in the swordtail, Xiphophorus nigrensis: testing the prediction of equal fitnesses. Am Nat 139:21-31Google Scholar
  188. Sandell MI, Diemer M (1999) Intraspecific brood parasitism: a strategy for floating females in the European starling. Anim Behav 57:197-202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Schaedelin FC, Taborsky M (2009) Extended phenotypes as signals. Biol Rev 84:293-313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Scheiner SM (1993) Genetics and evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 24:35-68Google Scholar
  191. Schlichting CD, Pigliucci M (1998) Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland/MAGoogle Scholar
  192. Schütz D, Pachler G, Ripmeester E, Goffinet O, Taborsky M (2010) Reproductive investment of giants and dwarfs: specialized tactics in a cichlid fish with alternative male morphs. Funct Ecol 24:131-140Google Scholar
  193. Seger J, Brockmann HJ (1987) What is bet-hedging? In: Harvey PH, Partridge L (eds) Oxford Surveys of Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 182-211Google Scholar
  194. Setchell JM (2008) Alternative reproductive tactics in primates. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 373-398Google Scholar
  195. Shapiro AM (1976) Seasonal polyphenism. Evol Biol 9:259-333Google Scholar
  196. Shapiro DY (1987) Differentiation and evolution of sex change in fishes. Bioscience 37:490-497Google Scholar
  197. Shuster SM (1992) The reproductive behavior of α-, β-, and γ -male morphs in Paracerceis sculpta, a marine isopod crustacean. Behaviour 121:231-257Google Scholar
  198. Shuster SM (2008) The expression of crustacean mating strategies. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 224-250Google Scholar
  199. Shuster SM, Sassaman C (1997) Genetic interaction between male mating strategy and sex ratio in a marine isopod. Nature 388:373-377Google Scholar
  200. Shuster SM, Wade MJ (1991) Equal mating success among male reproductive strategies in a marine isopod. Nature 350:608-610Google Scholar
  201. Shuster SM, Wade MJ (2003) Mating Systems and Strategies. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  202. Shuster SM, Zinser G, Keim P, Ballard JWO, Sassaman C (2001) The influence of genetic and extrachromosomal factors on population sex ratio in the marine isopod, Paracerceis sculpta. In: Kensley BF, Brusca RC (eds) Crustacean Issues 13: Isopod Systematics and Evolution. Balkema, Brookfield, pp 313-326Google Scholar
  203. Simmons LW, Teale RJ, Maier M, Standish RJ, Bailey WJ, Withers PC (1992) Some costs of reproduction for male bush-crickets, Requena verticalis (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) – allocating resources to mate attraction and nuptial feeding. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 31:57-62Google Scholar
  204. Sinervo B, Lively CM (1996) The rock-paper-scissors game and the evolution of alternative male strategies. Nature 380:240-243Google Scholar
  205. Sinervo B, Svensson E, Comendant T (2000) Density cycles and an offspring quantity and quality game driven by natural selection. Nature 406:985-988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Sinervo B, Bleay C, Adamopoulou C (2001) Social causes of correlational selection and the resolution of a heritable throat color polymorphism in a lizard. Evolution 55:2040-2052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Sinervo B, Chaine A, Clobert J, Calsbeek R, Hazard L, Lancaster L, McAdam AG, Alonzo S, Corrigan G, Hochberg ME (2006) Self-recognition, color signals, and cycles of greenbeard mutualism and altruism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:7372-7377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Sirot LK, Brockmann HJ, Marinis C, Muschett G (2003) Maintenance of a female-limited polymorphism in Ischnura ramburi (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Anim Behav 66:763-775Google Scholar
  209. Skubic E, Taborsky M, McNamara JM, Houston AI (2004) When to parasitize? A dynamic optimization model of reproductive strategies in a cooperative breeder. J Theor Biol 227:487-501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Skúlason S, Smith TB (1995) Resource polymorphisms in vertebrates. Trends Ecol Evol 10:366-370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Smith TB, Skúlason S (1996) Evolutionary significance of resource polymorphisms in fish, amphibians and birds. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 27:111-134Google Scholar
  212. Smuts BB, Smuts RW (1993) Male aggression and sexual coercion of females in nonhuman primates and other mammals: evidence and theoretical implications. Adv Stud Behav 22:1-63Google Scholar
  213. Sohn JJ (1977) Socially induced inhibition of genetically determined maturation in platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus. Science 195:199-201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. St-Cyr S, Aubin-Horth N (2009) Integrative and genomics approaches to uncover the mechanistic bases of fish behavior and its diversity. Comp Biochem Physiol A 152:9-21Google Scholar
  215. Stiver KA, Dierkes P, Taborsky M, Balshine S (2004) Dispersal patterns and status change in a co-operatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher: evidence from microsatellite analyses and behavioural observations. J Fish Biol 65:91-105Google Scholar
  216. Stiver KA, Dierkes P, Taborsky M, Gibbs HL, Balshine S (2005) Relatedness and helping in fish: examining the theoretical predictions. Proc R Soc Lond B 272:1593-1599Google Scholar
  217. Stiver KA, Fitzpatrick J, Desjardins JK, Balshine S (2006) Sex differences in rates of territory joining and inheritance in a cooperatively breeding cichlid fish. Anim Behav 71:449-456Google Scholar
  218. Taborsky M (1984) Broodcare helpers in the cichlid fish Lamprologus brichardi – their costs and benefits. Anim Behav 32:1236-1252Google Scholar
  219. Taborsky M (1985) Breeder-helper conflict in a cichlid fish with broodcare helpers – an experimental analysis. Behaviour 95:45-75Google Scholar
  220. Taborsky M (1994) Sneakers, satellites, and helpers: parasitic and cooperative behavior in fish reproduction. Adv Stud Behav 23:1-100Google Scholar
  221. Taborsky M (1997) Bourgeois and parasitic tactics: do we need collective, functional terms for alternative reproductive behaviours? Behav Ecol Sociobiol 41:361-362Google Scholar
  222. Taborsky M (1998) Sperm competition in fish: bourgeois males and parasitic spawning. Trends Ecol Evol 13:222-227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Taborsky M (1999) Conflict or cooperation: what determines optimal solutions to competition in fish reproduction? In: Almada VC, Oliveira RF, Gonçalves EJ (eds) Behaviour and Conservation of Littoral Fishes. Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa, pp 301-349Google Scholar
  224. Taborsky M (2001) The evolution of parasitic and cooperative reproductive behaviors in fishes. J Heredity 92:100-110Google Scholar
  225. Taborsky M (2008) Alternative reproductive tactics in fish. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 251-299Google Scholar
  226. Taborsky M (2009) Reproductive skew in cooperative fish groups: virtue and limitations of alternative modeling approaches. In: Hager R, Jones CB (eds) Reproductive Skew in Vertebrates: Proximate and Ultimate Causes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 265-304Google Scholar
  227. Taborsky M, Limberger D (1981) Helpers in fish. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 8:143-145Google Scholar
  228. Taborsky M, Hudde B, Wirtz P (1987) Reproductive behaviour and ecology of Symphodus (Crenilabrus) ocellatus, a European wrasse with four types of male behaviour. Behaviour 102:82-118Google Scholar
  229. Taborsky M, Oliveira RF, Brockmann HJ (2008) The evolution of alternative reproductive tactics: concepts and questions. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1-21Google Scholar
  230. Takahashi S, Hori M (1994) Unstable evolutionarily stable strategy and oscillation: a model of lateral asymmetry in scale-eating cichlids. Am Nat 144:1001-1020Google Scholar
  231. Tallamy DW (2005) Egg dumping in insects. Annu Rev Entomol 50:347-370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Tallamy DW, Horton LA (1990) Costs and benefits of the eggdumping alternative in Gargaphia lace bugs (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Anim Behav 39:352-359Google Scholar
  233. Thériault V, Dodson JJ (2003) Body size and the adoption of a migratory tactic in brook charr. J Fish Biol 63:1144-1159Google Scholar
  234. Thomaz D, Beall E, Burke T (1997) Alternative reproductive tactics in Atlantic salmon: factors affecting mature parr success. Proc R Soc Lond B 264:219-226Google Scholar
  235. Thornhill R, Alcock J (1983) The Evolution of Insect Mating Systems. Harvard University Press, Cambridge/MAGoogle Scholar
  236. Thorpe JE (1986) Age at first maturity in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar: freshwater period influences and conflicts with smelting. In: Meerburg DJ (ed) Salmonid Age at Maturity. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci 89:7-14Google Scholar
  237. Thorpe JE, Morgan RIG (1980) Growth rate and smolting rate of progeny of male Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L.). J Fish Biol 17:451-459Google Scholar
  238. Thorpe JE, Mangel M, Metcalfe NB, Huntingford FA (1998) Modelling the proximate basis of salmonid life-history variation, with application to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Evol Ecol 12:581-599Google Scholar
  239. Tomkins JL, Brown GS (2004) Population density drives the local evolution of a threshold dimorphism. Nature 431:1099-1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Tomkins JL, Hazel W (2007) The status of the conditional evolutionarily stable strategy. Trends Ecol Evol 22:522-528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Tomkins JL, Moczek AP (2009) Patterns of threshold evolution in polyphenic insects under different developmental models. Evolution 63:459-468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Tomkins JL, Simmons LW, Alcock J (2001) Brood-provisioning strategies in Dawson’s burrowing bee, Amegilla dawsoni (Hymenoptera: Anthophorini). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 50:81-89Google Scholar
  243. Tomkins JL, LeBas NR, Unrug J, Radwan J (2004) Testing the status-dependent ESS model: population variation in fighter expression in the mite Sancassania berlesei. J Evol Biol 17:1377-1388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Tomkins JL, Kotiaho JS, LeBas NR (2005) Phenotypic plasticity in the developmental integration of morphological trade-offs and secondary sexual trait compensation. Proc R Soc Lond B 272:543-551Google Scholar
  245. Toth AL, Varala K, Newman TC, Miguez FE, Hutchison SK, Willoughby DA, Simons JF, Egholm M, Hunt JH, Hudson ME, Robinson GE (2007) Wasp gene expression supports an evolutionary link between maternal behavior and eusociality. Science 318:441-444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Trumbo ST (1996) Parental care in invertebrates. Adv Stud Behav 25:3-51Google Scholar
  247. Tsubaki Y (2003) The genetic polymorphism linked to mate-securing strategies in the male damselfly Mnais costalis Selys (Odonata: Calopterygidae). Popul Ecol 45:263-266Google Scholar
  248. Tsubaki Y, Ono T (1986) Competition for territorial sites and alternative mating tactics in the dragonfly, Nannophya pygmaea Rambur (Odonata, Libellulidae). Behaviour 97:234-252Google Scholar
  249. Tsubaki Y, Hooper RE, Siva-Jothy MT (1997) Differences in adult and reproductive lifespan in the two male forms of Mnais pruinosa costalis Selys (Odonata: Calopterygidae). Res Popul Ecol 39:149-155Google Scholar
  250. Unrug J, Tomkins JL, Radwan J (2004) Alternative phenotypes and sexual selection: can dichotomous handicaps honestly signal quality? Proc R Soc Lond B 271:1401-1406Google Scholar
  251. Utami SS, Goossens B, Bruford MW, de Ruiter JR, van Hooff JARAM (2002) Male bimaturism and reproductive success in Sumatran orang-utans. Behav Ecol 13:643-652Google Scholar
  252. van den Assem J (1967) Territory in the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L.: an experimental study in intra-specific competition. Behaviour (suppl) 16:1-164Google Scholar
  253. van den Berghe EP (1988) Piracy: a new alternative male reproductive tactic. Nature 334:697-698Google Scholar
  254. van Rhijn JG (1973). Behavioural dimorphism in male ruffs, Philomachus pugnax (L.). Behaviour 47:153-229Google Scholar
  255. Vehrencamp SL (1983) A model for the evolution of despotic versus egalitarian societies. Anim Behav 31:667-682Google Scholar
  256. Via S, Lande R (1985) Genotype-environment interaction and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Evolution 39:505-522Google Scholar
  257. Wagner WE (2005) Male field crickets that provide reproductive benefits to females incur higher costs. Ecol Entomol 30:350-357Google Scholar
  258. Walker SE, Cade WH (2003) A simulation model of the effects of frequency dependence, density dependence and parasitoid flies on the fitness of male field crickets. Ecol Modell 169:119-130Google Scholar
  259. Waltz EC (1982) Alternative mating tactics and the law of diminishing returns – the satellite threshold model. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 10:75-83Google Scholar
  260. Waltz EC, Wolf LL (1984) By Jove – why do alternative mating tactics assume so many different forms? Am Zool 24:333-343Google Scholar
  261. Warner RR, Robertson DR, Leigh EG Jr (1975) Sex change and sexual selection. Science 190:633-638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Watts DP (1998) Coalitionary mate guarding by male chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 44:43-55Google Scholar
  263. West-Eberhard MJ (1989) Phenotypic plasticity and the origins of diversity. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 20:249-278Google Scholar
  264. West-Eberhard MJ (2003) Developmental Plasticity and Evolution. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  265. Westneat DF, Stewart IRK (2003) Extra-pair paternity in birds: causes, correlates, and conflict. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34:365-396Google Scholar
  266. Whitfield CW, Cziko A-M, Robinson GE (2003) Gene expression profiles in the brain predict behavior in individual honey bees. Science 302:296-299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Widemo F (1998) Alternative reproductive strategies in the ruff, Philomachus pugnax: a mixed ESS? Anim Behav 56:329-336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Wikelski M, Carbone C, Trillmich F (1996) Lekking in marine iguanas: female grouping and male reproductive strategies. Anim Behav 52:581-596Google Scholar
  269. Wikelski M, Steiger SS, Gall B, Nelson KN (2005) Sex, drugs and mating role: testosterone-induced phenotype-switching in Galapagos marine iguanas. Behav Ecol 16:260-268Google Scholar
  270. Wirtz P (1982) Territory holders, satellite males and bachelor males in a high density population of waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) and their associations with conspecifics. Z Tierpsychol 58:277-300Google Scholar
  271. Wolf M, van Doorn GS, Leimar O, Weissing FJ (2007) Life-history trade-offs favour the evolution of animal personalities. Nature 447:581-584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Wolff JO (2008) Alternative reproductive tactics in nonprimate male mammals. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 356-372Google Scholar
  273. Wolff JO, Cicirello DM (1990) Mobility versus territoriality: alternative reproductive strategies in white-footed mice. Anim Behav 39:1222-1224Google Scholar
  274. Yanagisawa Y (1985) Parental strategy of the cichlid fish Perissodus microlepis, with particular reference to intraspecific brood ‘farming out’. Env Biol Fish 12:241-249Google Scholar
  275. Yom-Tov Y (2001) An updated list and some comments on the occurrence of intraspecific nest parasitism in birds. Ibis 143:133-143Google Scholar
  276. Yom-Tov Y (1980) Intraspecific nest parasitism in birds. Biol Rev 55:93-108Google Scholar
  277. Zamudio KR, Chan LM (2008) Alternative reproductive tactics in amphibians. In: Oliveira RF, Taborsky M, Brockmann HJ (eds) Alternative Reproductive Tactics: An Integrative Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 300-331Google Scholar
  278. Zamudio KR, Sinervo E (2000) Polygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male mating strategies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:14427-14432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. Zera AJ, Harshman LG (2001) The physiology of life history trade-offs in animals. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 32:95-126Google Scholar
  280. Zera AJ, Huang Y (1999) Evolutionary endocrinology of juvenile hormone esterase: functional relationship with wing polymorphism in the cricket, Gryllus firmus. Evolution 53:837-847Google Scholar
  281. Zera AJ, Rankin MA (1989) Wing dimorphism in Gryllus rubens: genetic basis of morph determination and fertility differences between morphs. Oecologia 80:249-255Google Scholar
  282. Zera AJ, Zhang C (1995) Evolutionary endocrinology of juvenile hormone esterase in Gryllus assimilis: direct and correlated responses to selection. Genetics 141:1125-1134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Zhao Z, Zera AJ (2002) Differential lipid biosynthesis underlies a tradeoff between reproduction and flight capability in a wing-polymorphic cricket. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:16829-16834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. Zimmerer EJ, Kallman KD (1989) Genetic basis for alterntive reproductive tactics in the pygmy swordtail, Xiphophorus nigrensis. Evolution 43:1298-1307Google Scholar
  285. Zink AG (2003) Intraspecific brood parasitism as a conditional reproductive tactic in the treehopper Publilia concava. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 54:406-415Google Scholar
  286. Zupanc GKH, Lamprecht J (2000) Towards a cellular understanding of motivation: structural reorganization and biochemical switching as key mechanisms of behavioral plasticity. Ethology 106:467-477Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Taborsky
    • 1
  • H. Jane Brockmann
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. Behavioural Ecology, Institute of ZoologyUniversity of BernHinterkappelen, BernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Dept. of BiologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations