Estimating Productivity: Composite Operators for Keystroke Level Modeling

  • Jeff Sauro
Conference paper

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-02574-7_40

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5610)
Cite this paper as:
Sauro J. (2009) Estimating Productivity: Composite Operators for Keystroke Level Modeling. In: Jacko J.A. (eds) Human-Computer Interaction. New Trends. HCI 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 5610. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

Abstract

Task time is a measure of productivity in an interface. Keystroke Level Modeling (KLM) can predict experienced user task time to within 10 to 30% of actual times. One of the biggest constraints to implementing KLM is the tedious aspect of estimating the low-level motor and cognitive actions of the users. The method proposed here combines common actions in applications into high-level operators (composite operators) that represent the average error-free time (e.g. to click on a button, select from a drop-down, type into a text-box). The combined operators dramatically reduce the amount of time and error in building an estimate of productivity. An empirical test of 26 users across two enterprise web-applications found this method to estimate the mean observed time to within 10%. The composite operators lend themselves to use by designers and product developers early in development without the need for different prototyping environments or tedious calculations.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeff Sauro
    • 1
  1. 1.Oracle, 1 Technology WayDenverUSA

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