Scanning Probe Microscopy – Principle of Operation, Instrumentation, and Probes

Abstract

Since the introduction of the STM in 1981 and the AFM in 1985, many variations of probe-based microscopies, referred to as SPMs, have been developed. While the pure imaging capabilities of SPM techniques initially dominated applications of these methods, the physics of probe–sample interactions and quantitative analyses of tribological, electronic, magnetic, biological, and chemical surfaces using SPMs have become of increasing interest in recent years. SPMs are often associated with nanoscale science and technology, since they allow investigation and manipulation of surfaces down to the atomic scale. As our understanding of the underlying interaction mechanisms has grown, SPMs have increasingly found application in many fields beyond basic research fields. In addition, various derivatives of all these methods have been developed for special applications, some of them intended for areas other than microscopy.

This chapter presents an overview of STM and AFM and various probes (tips) used in these instruments, followed by details on AFM instrumentation and analyses.

Abbreviations

AC

alternating-current

AC

amorphous carbon

AFAM

atomic force acoustic microscopy

AFM

atomic force microscope

AFM

atomic force microscopy

AM

amplitude modulation

CG

controlled geometry

CVD

chemical vapor deposition

DSP

digital signal processor

FET

field-effect transistor

FFM

friction force microscope

FFM

friction force microscopy

FIB

focused ion beam

FM

frequency modulation

HOP

highly oriented pyrolytic

LFM

lateral force microscope

LFM

lateral force microscopy

LVDT

linear variable differential transformer

MFM

magnetic field microscopy

MFM

magnetic force microscope

MFM

magnetic force microscopy

MWNT

multiwall nanotube

PECVD

plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

PSD

position-sensitive detector

PSD

position-sensitive diode

PSD

power-spectral density

PZT

lead zirconate titanate

SCM

scanning capacitance microscopy

SCPM

scanning chemical potential microscopy

SEFM

scanning electrostatic force microscopy

SEM

scanning electron microscope

SEM

scanning electron microscopy

SEcM

scanning electrochemical microscopy

SFAM

scanning force acoustic microscopy

SFM

scanning force microscope

SFM

scanning force microscopy

SICM

scanning ion conductance microscopy

SKPM

scanning Kelvin probe microscopy

SMM

scanning magnetic microscopy

SNOM

scanning near field optical microscopy

SPM

scanning probe microscope

SPM

scanning probe microscopy

STM

scanning tunneling microscope

STM

scanning tunneling microscopy

SThM

scanning thermal microscope

SWNT

single wall nanotube

SWNT

single-wall nanotube

TEM

transmission electron microscope

TEM

transmission electron microscopy

TESP

tapping mode etched silicon probe

UHV

ultrahigh vacuum

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- and Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLB2)Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Experimental PhysicsUlm UniversityUlmGermany

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