In recent years we have seen a rising interest in brain-computer interfacing for human-computer interaction and potential game applications. Until now, however, we have almost only seen attempts where BCI is used to measure the affective state of the user or in neurofeedback games. There have hardly been any attempts to design BCI games where BCI is considered to be one of the possible input modalities that can be used to control the game. One reason may be that research still follows the paradigms of the traditional, medically oriented, BCI approaches. In this paper we discuss current BCI research from the viewpoint of games and game design. It is hoped that this survey will make clear that we need to design different games than we used to, but that such games can nevertheless be interesting and exciting.


Brain-computer Interfacing Multimodal Interaction Game Design 


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Copyright information

© ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anton Nijholt
    • 1
  • Boris Reuderink
    • 1
  • Danny Oude Bos
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty EEMCSUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

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