Distinguishing between Camera and Scanned Images by Means of Frequency Analysis

  • Roberto Caldelli
  • Irene Amerini
  • Francesco Picchioni
Part of the Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering book series (LNICST, volume 8)


Distinguishing the kind of sensor which has acquired a digital image could be crucial in many scenarios where digital forensic techniques are called to give answers. In this paper a new methodology which permits to determine if a digital photo has been taken by a camera or has been scanned by a scanner is proposed. Such a technique exploits the specific geometrical features of the sensor pattern noise introduced by the sensor in both cases and by resorting to a frequency analysis can infer if a periodicity is present and consequently which is the origin of the digital content. Experimental results are presented to support the theoretical framework.


digital forensic source identification scanner sensor noise 


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Copyright information

© ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Caldelli
    • 1
  • Irene Amerini
    • 1
  • Francesco Picchioni
    • 1
  1. 1.Media Integration and Communication Center - MICCUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

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