Working Memory Differences in E-Learning Environments: Optimization of Learners’ Performance through Personalization

  • Nikos Tsianos
  • Panagiotis Germanakos
  • Zacharias Lekkas
  • Costas Mourlas
  • George Samaras
  • Mario Belk
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5535)


Working memory (WM) is a psychological construct that has a major effect on information processing, thus signifying its importance when considering individual differences and adaptive educational hypermedia. Previous work of the authors in the field has demonstrated that personalization on human factors, including the WM sub-component of visuospatial sketchpad, may assist learners in optimizing their performance. To that end, a deeper approach in WM has been carried out, both in terms of more accurate measurements and more elaborated adaptation techniques. This paper presents results from a sample of 80 university students, underpinning the importance of WM in the context of an e-learning application in a statistically robust way. In short, learners that have low WM span expectedly perform worse than learners with higher levels of WM span; however, through proper personalization techniques this difference is completely alleviated, leveling the performance of low and normal WM span learners.


Adaptive Hypermedia e-Learning Working Memory Individual Differences User Profiling 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikos Tsianos
    • 1
  • Panagiotis Germanakos
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zacharias Lekkas
    • 1
  • Costas Mourlas
    • 1
  • George Samaras
    • 2
  • Mario Belk
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Communication and Media StudiesNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensHellas
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of CyprusNicosiaCyprus
  3. 3.Department of Management and MISUniversity of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus

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