Quaking Aspen’s Current and Future Status in Western North America: The Role of Succession, Climate, Biotic Agents and Its Clonal Nature

  • Samuel B. St. ClairEmail author
  • John Guyon
  • Jack Donaldson
Part of the Progress in Botany book series (BOTANY, volume 71)


Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) exerts significant influence on the function and diversity of boreal and subalpine forests of western North America. Aspen’s expansive range highlights its success in adapting to a variety of environmental conditions. Recent patterns of dieback and habitat loss suggest that shifts in environmental conditions appear to be placing constraints on aspen vigor in some, but not all portions of its western range. The objectives of this chapter are to outline recent trends in aspen’s status in western North America and to establish a physiological framework for understanding current and future trends in aspen ecology in the context of succession dynamics, shifts in climate conditions and biotic factors, and aspen’s clonal nature. The literature suggests that aspen decline is occurring in some areas but that trends are highly variable depending on: site characteristics, fire and succession, extreme climatic events, biotic agents, and human influence.


Extreme Climatic Event Phenolic Glycoside Canker Disease Fire Return Interval Aspen Forest 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anderson GW, Martin MP (1981) Factors related to incidence of Hypoxylon cankers in aspen and survival of cankered trees. Forest Sci 27:461–476Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (2007) Forest insect and disease conditions in the United States. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection publication, USA, 175 p. Available at:
  3. Ayres MP, Clausen TP, MacLean SF Jr, Redman AM, Reichardt PB (1997) Diversity of structure and antiherbivore activity in condensed tannins. Ecology 78:1696–1712Google Scholar
  4. Bailey JK, Schweitzer JA, Rehill BJ, Irschick DJ, Whitham TG, Lindroth RL (2007) Rapid shifts in the chemical composition of aspen forests: an introduced herbivore as an agent of natural selection. Biol Invasions 9:715–722Google Scholar
  5. Baker FS (1925) Aspen in the central rocky mountain region. USDA Bulletin No: 1291. USDA, Washington DC, p 47Google Scholar
  6. Balland V, Bhatti J, Errington R, Castonguay M, Arp PA (2006) Modeling snowpack and soil temperature and moisture conditions in a jack pine, black spruce and aspen forest stand in central Saskatchewan (BOREAS SSA). Can J Soil Sci 86:203–217Google Scholar
  7. Barnes BV (1975) Phenotypic variation of trembling aspen in western North America. For Sci 21:319–328Google Scholar
  8. Barr AG, Black TA, Hogg EH, Griffis TJ, Morgenstern K, Kljun N, Theede A, Nesic Z (2007) Climatic Controls on the Carbon and Water Balances of a Boreal Aspen Forest, 1994–2003. Glob Change Biol 13:561–576Google Scholar
  9. Bartos DL, Campbell RB (1998) Decline of quaking aspen in the interior west – examples from Utah. Rangelands 20(1):17–24Google Scholar
  10. Beaty RM, Taylor AH (2008) Fire history and the structure and dynamics of a mixed conifer forest landscape in the northern Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, California, USA. For Ecol Manage 255:707–719Google Scholar
  11. Bergen KM, Dronova I (2007) Observing succession on aspen-dominated landscapes using a remote sensing-ecosystem approach. Landscape Ecol. 22:1395–1410Google Scholar
  12. Bergeron Y (2000) Species and stand dynamics in the mixed woods of Quebec's southern boreal forest. Ecology 81:1500–1516Google Scholar
  13. Berrang P, Karnosky D, Bennett J (1991) Natural selection for ozone tolerance in Populus tremuloides- an evaluation of nationwide trends. Can J For Res 21:1091–1097Google Scholar
  14. Bigler C, Kulakowski D, Veblen TT (2005) Multiple disturbance interactions and drought influence fire severity in rocky mountain subalpine forests. Ecology 86:3018–3029Google Scholar
  15. Blais JR, Prentice RM, Sippell WL, Wallace DR (1955) Effects of weather on the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hbn., in central Canada in the spring of 1953. Can Ent 87:1–8Google Scholar
  16. Blake T, Sperry J, Tschaplinski T, Wang S (1996) Water relations. In: Stettler R, Bradshaw H, Heilman P, Hinckley T (eds) Biology of Populus and its implications for management and conservation. NRC Research, Ottawa, pp 401–422Google Scholar
  17. Brandt JP, Cerezke HF, Mallett KI, Volney WJA, Weber JD (2003) Factors affecting trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) health in the boreal forest of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, Canada. For Ecol Manage 178:287–300Google Scholar
  18. Breshears DD, Cobb NS, Rich PM, Price KP, Allen CD, Balice RG, Romme WH, Kastens JH, Floyd ML, Belnap J, Anderson JJ, Myers OB, Meyer CW (2005) Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:15144–15148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bryant JP, Clausen TP, Reichardt PB, McCarthy MC, Werner RA (1987) Effect of nitrogen fertilization upon the secondary chemistry and nutritional value of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves for the large aspen tortrix (Choristoneura conflictana Walker). Oecologia 73:513–517Google Scholar
  20. Buechling A, Baker WL (2004) A fire history from tree rings in a high-elevation forest of Rocky Mountain National Park. Can J For Res 34:1259–1273Google Scholar
  21. Cannell MGR, Smith RI (1986) Climate warming, spring budburst and frost damage on trees. J Appl Ecol 23:177–191Google Scholar
  22. Cayford J, Hildahl V, Nairn L, Wheaton P (1959) Injury to tree from winter drying and frost in Manitoba and Saskatchewan in 1958. For Chron 35:282–290Google Scholar
  23. Churchill GB, John HH, Duncan DP, Hodson AC (1964) Long-term effects of defoliation of aspen by the forest tent caterpillar. Ecology 45:630–633Google Scholar
  24. Ciais P, Reichstein M, Viovy N, Granier A, Ogee J, Allard V, Aubinet M, Buchmann N, Bernhofer C, Carrara A, Chevallier F, De Noblet N, Friend AD, Friedlingstein P, Grunwald T, Heinesch B, Keronen P, Knohl A, Krinner G, Loustau D, Manca G, Matteucci G, Miglietta F, Ourcival JM, Papale D, Pilegaard K, Rambal S, Seufert G, Soussana JF, Sanz MJ, Schulze ED, Vesala T, Valentini R (2005) Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437:529–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Cooke BJ, Roland J (2007) Trembling aspen responses to drought and defoliation by forest tent caterpillar and reconstruction of recent outbreaks in Ontario. Can J For Res 37:1586–1598Google Scholar
  26. Cryer D, Murray J (1992) Aspen regeneration and soils. Rangelands 14:223–226Google Scholar
  27. Cumming SG (2001) Forest type and wildfire in the Alberta boreal mixedwood: What do fires burn? Ecol Appl 11:97–110Google Scholar
  28. Dang QL, Margolis HA, Coyea MR, Sy M, Collatz GJ (1997) Regulation of branch-level gas exchange of boreal trees: roles of shoot water potential and vapor pressure difference. Tree Physiol 17:521–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. DeByle N (1985) Wildlife. In: DeByle N, Winokur R (eds) Aspen: ecology and management, General Technical Report RM-119. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, pp 135–152Google Scholar
  30. Donaldson JR, Lindroth RL (2007) Genetics, environment, and their interaction determine efficacy of chemical defense in trembling aspen. Ecology 88:729–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Donaldson JR, Lindroth RL (2008) Effects of variable phytochemistry and budbreak phenology on defoliation of aspen during a forest tent caterpillar outbreak. Agric For Entomol 10:399–410Google Scholar
  32. Donaldson JR, Stevens MT, Barnhill HR, Lindroth RL (2006) Age-related shifts in leaf chemistry of clonal aspen (Populus tremuloides). J Chem Ecol 32:1415–1429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Duncan DP, Hodson AC (1958) Influence of the forest tent caterpillar upon the aspen forests of Minnesota. For Sci 4:71–93Google Scholar
  34. Erwin EA, Turner MG, Lindroth RL, Romme WH (2001) Secondary plant compounds in seedling and mature aspen (Populus tremuloides) in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Am Midl Nat 145:299–308Google Scholar
  35. Fairweather ML, Barton K, Manthei M (2004) Aspen Decline in Northern Arizona. In: Symposium Proceedings, Managing Aspen in Western Forest Landscapes conference, Cedar City, Utah. Utah State University Forestry Extension web publication.
  36. Fairweather M, Geils B, Manthei M (2008) Aspen Decline on the coconino National Forest. In: proceedings of the 55th western International Forest Disease work conference, Sedona AZ, Editor M. McWilliams, Oregon Department of Foresty Salem pp. 53–62Google Scholar
  37. Feild TS, Brodribb T (2001) Stem water transport and freeze-thaw xylem embolism in conifers and angiosperms in a Tasmanian treeline heath. Oecologia 127:314–320Google Scholar
  38. Fitzgerald TD (1995) The tent caterpillars. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NYGoogle Scholar
  39. Fralish JS (1975) Ecological and historical aspects of aspen succession in northern Wisconsin. T Wisc Acad Sci 63:54–65Google Scholar
  40. Fraser E, Landhausser S, Lieffers V (2004) The effect of fire severity and salvage logging traffic on regeneration and early growth of aspen suckers in north-central Alberta. For Chron 80:251–256Google Scholar
  41. Frey BR, Lieffers VJ, Landhausser SM, Comeau PG, Greenway KJ (2003) An analysis of sucker regeneration of trembling aspen. Can J For Res 33:1169–1179Google Scholar
  42. Frey BR, Lieffers VJ, Hogg EH, Landhausser SM (2004) Predicting landscape patterns of aspen dieback: mechanisms and knowledge gaps. Can J For Res 34:1379–1390Google Scholar
  43. Fule PZ, Crouse JE, Heinlein TA, Moore MM, Covington WW, Verkamp G (2003) Mixed-severity fire regime in a high-elevation forest of Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA. Landscape Ecol 18:465–485Google Scholar
  44. Gallant AL, Hansen AJ, Councilman JS, Monte DK, Betz DW (2003) Vegetation dynamics under fire exclusion and logging in a Rocky Mountain watershed, 1856–1996. Ecol Appl 13:385–403Google Scholar
  45. Gifford G, Humphries W, Jaynes R (1984) A preliminary quantification of the impacts of aspen to conifer succession on water yield. Water Res Bull 20:181–186Google Scholar
  46. Gower ST, McMurtrie RE, Murty D (1996) Aboveground net primary production decline with stand age: potential causes. Trends Ecol Evol 11:378–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gradowski T, Sidders D, Keddy T, Lieffers VJ, Landhausser SM (2008) Effects of overstory retention and site preparation on growth of planted white spruce seedlings in deciduous and coniferous dominated boreal plains mixedwoods. For Ecol Manage 255:3744–3749Google Scholar
  48. Grant RF, Black TA, Gaumont-Guay D, Kljun N, Barrc AG, Morgenstern K, Nesic Z (2006) Net ecosystem productivity of boreal aspen forests under drought and climate change: mathematical modeling with Ecosys. Agric For Meteorol 140:152–170Google Scholar
  49. Griffin DH, Schaedle M, Devit MJ, Manion PD (1991) Clonal variation of Populus Tremuloides responses to diurnal drought stress. Tree Physiol 8:297–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Griffis TJ, Black TA, Gaumont-Guay D, Drewitt GB, Nesic Z, Barr AG, Morgenstern K, Kljun N (2004) Seasonal variation and partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a southern boreal aspen forest. Agric For Meteorol 125:207–223Google Scholar
  51. Guyon JC (1998) Forest-wise insect and disease survey of the Bridger-Teton National Forest. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, FHP Report 98-3, 19 pGoogle Scholar
  52. Guyon JC (2006) Are the changes in aspen forests in western North America a forest decline? In: Guyon JC (ed) Proceedings of the 53rd Western International Forest Disease Work Conference, 2005 September 26–29, Jackson, WY. USDA, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. Ogden, UT, p 95-101Google Scholar
  53. Guyon JC, Jacobi WR, Mcintyre GA (1996) Effects of environmental stress on the development of Cytospora canker of aspen. Plant Dis 80:1320–1326Google Scholar
  54. Halofsky J, Ripple W (2008) Linkages between wolf presence and aspen recruitment in the Gallatin elk winter range of southwestern Montana, USA. Forestry 81:195–207Google Scholar
  55. Hanninen H (2006) Climate warming and the risk of frost damage to boreal forest trees: identification of critical ecophysiological traits. Tree Physiol 26:889–898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Harniss RO, Nelson DL (1984) A severe epidemic of Marssonina leaf blight on quaking aspen in northern Utah. USDA Forest Service Research Note INT-339, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, Utah, 6pGoogle Scholar
  57. Hart JH (2001) Interaction among cervids, fungi, and aspen in northwest Wyoming. Sustaining Aspen in Western Landscapes: Symposium Proceedings, Grand Junction, Colorado, USA, 13–15 June 2000 (No.RMRS-P-18), pp 197–205Google Scholar
  58. Hart M, Hogg EH, Lieffers VJ (2000) Enhanced water relations of residual foliage following defoliation in Populus tremuloides. Can J For Res 78:583–590Google Scholar
  59. Hemming JDC, Lindroth RL (1995) Intraspecific variation in aspen phytochemistry: effects on performance of gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars. Oecologia 103:79–88Google Scholar
  60. Herms D, Mattson W (1992) The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. Q Rev Biol 67:283–335Google Scholar
  61. Hill SB, Mallik AU, Chen HYH (2005) Canopy gap disturbance and succession in trembling aspen dominated boreal forests in northeastern Ontario. Can J For Res 35:1942–1951Google Scholar
  62. Hinds TE (1985) Diseases. In: DeByle NV, Winokur RP (eds) Aspen: ecology and management in the western United States. General Technical Report, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. (No. RM-119), pp 87–106Google Scholar
  63. Hinds TE, Shepperd WD (1987) Aspen sucker damage and defect in Colorado clearcut areas. Research Paper Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service (No. RM-278), pp 1–12Google Scholar
  64. Hogg EH, Schwarz AG (1997) Regeneration of planted conifers across climatic moisture gradients on the Canadian prairies: implications for distribution and climate change. J Biogeogr 24:527–534Google Scholar
  65. Hogg EH, Price DT, Black TA (2000a) Postulated feedbacks of deciduous forest phenology on seasonal climate patterns in the western Canadian interior. J Climate 13:4229–4243Google Scholar
  66. Hogg EH, Saugier B, Pontailler JY, Black TA, Chen W, Hurdle PA, Wu A (2000b) Responses of trembling aspen and hazelnut to vapor pressure deficit in a boreal deciduous forest. Tree Physiol 20:725–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hogg EH, Brandt JP, Kochtubajda B (2002) Growth and dieback of Aspen forests in northwestern Alberta, Canada, in relation to climate and insects. Can J For Res 32:823–832Google Scholar
  68. Hogg EH, Brandt JP, Kochtubajda B (2005) Factors affecting interannual variation in growth of western Canadian aspen forests during 1951–2000. Can J For Res 35:610–622Google Scholar
  69. Hogg EH, Brandt JP, Michaellian M (2008) Impacts of a regional drought on the productivity, dieback, and biomass of western Canadian aspen forests. Can J For Res 38:1373–1384Google Scholar
  70. Hollenbeck JP, Ripple WJ (2007) Aspen and conifer heterogeneity effects on bird diversity in the northern Yellowstone ecosystem. West N Am Nat 67:92–101Google Scholar
  71. Holmgren M, Stapp P, Dickman CR, Gracia C, Graham S, Gutierrez JR, Hice C, Jaksic F, Kelt DA, Letnic M, Lima M, Lopez BC, Meserve PL, Milstead WB, Polis GA, Previtali MA, Michael R, Sabate S, Squeo FA (2006) Extreme climatic events shape arid and semiarid ecosystems. Front Ecol Environ 4:87–95Google Scholar
  72. Hwang SY, Lindroth RL (1997) Clonal variation in foliar chemistry of aspen: Effects on gypsy moths and forest tent caterpillars. Oecologia 111:99–108Google Scholar
  73. Hwang S-Y, Lindroth RL (1998) Consequences of clonal variation in aspen phytochemistry for late season folivores. Ecoscience 5:508–516Google Scholar
  74. IPCC (2007) Working group 1 Fourth assessment report. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  75. James RL, Goheen DJ (1981) Conifer mortality associated with root disease and insects in Colorado. Plant Dis 65:506–507Google Scholar
  76. Jones J (1985) Distribution. In: DeByle N, Winokur R (eds) Aspen: ecology and management, General Technical Report RM-119. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, pp 9–10Google Scholar
  77. Jones J, DeByle N (1985) Fire. In: DeByle N, Winokur R (eds) Aspen: ecology and management, General Technical Report RM-119. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, pp 77–81Google Scholar
  78. Jones JR, Shepperd WD (1985) Rotations. In: DeByle NV, Winokur RP (eds) Aspen: ecology and management in the western United States. General Technical Report, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service (No. RM-1), pp 217–218Google Scholar
  79. Jones JR, Debyle NV, Bowers DM (1985) Insects and other invertebrates. In: DeByle NV, Winokur RP (eds) Aspen: ecology and management in the western United States. General Technical Report, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service (No. RM-119), pp 107–114Google Scholar
  80. Kanaga MK, Ryel RJ, Mock KE, Pfrender ME (2008) Quantitative-genetic variation in morphological and physiological traits within a quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) population. Can J For Res 38:1690–1694Google Scholar
  81. Kashian DM, Romme WH, Regan CM (2007) Reconciling divergent interpretations of quaking aspen decline on the northern Colorado Front Range. Ecol Appl 17:1296–1311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Katovich S, Hanson, J (2001) Forest tent caterpillar in the upper Midwest. Information Sheet NA-PR-02-01. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Area State and Private Forestry, Newtown Square, PAGoogle Scholar
  83. Kay CE (1995) Aboriginal overkill and native burning: Implications for modern ecosystem management. West J Appl For 10:121–126Google Scholar
  84. Kay CE (1997) Is aspen doomed? J For 95:4–11Google Scholar
  85. Kay CE, Bartos DL (2000) Ungulate herbivory on Utah aspen: Assessment of long-term exclosures. J Range Manage 53:145–153Google Scholar
  86. Kaye MW, Stohlgren TJ, Binkley D (2003) Aspen structure and variability in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA. Landscape Ecol 18:591–603Google Scholar
  87. Kemperman J, Barnes B (1976) Clone size in American Aspens. Can. J. Bol. 54:2603–2607Google Scholar
  88. Keyser TL, Smith FW, Shepperd WD (2005) Trembling aspen response to a mixed-severity wildfire in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. Can J For Res 35:2679–2684Google Scholar
  89. Kobe RK, Coates KD (1997) Models of sapling mortality as a function of growth to characterize interspecific variation in shade tolerance of eight tree species of northwestern British Columbia. Can J For Res 27:227–236Google Scholar
  90. Korstian CF (1921) Effect of a late spring frost upon forest vegetation in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah. Ecology 2:47–52Google Scholar
  91. Krebill RG (1972) Mortality of Aspen on the Gros Ventre elk winter range. USDA-Forest-Service-Research Paper, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station (No. INT-129),16 ppGoogle Scholar
  92. Kruger EL, Volin JC, Lindroth RL (1998) Influences of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the responses of sugar maple and trembling aspen to defoliation. New Phytol 140:85–94Google Scholar
  93. Kulakowski D, Veblen TT, Drinkwater S (2004) The persistence of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Grand Mesa Area, Colorado. Ecol Appl 14:1603–1614Google Scholar
  94. Kulakowski D, Veblen TT, Kurzel BP (2006) Influences of infrequent fire, elevation and pre-fire vegetation on the persistence of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) in the Flat Tops area, Colorado, USA. J Biogeogr 33:1397–1413Google Scholar
  95. Kurzel BP, Veblen TT, Kulakowski D (2007) A typology of stand structure and dynamics of Quaking aspen in northwestern Colorado. For Ecol Manage 252:176–190Google Scholar
  96. LaMalfa E, Ryel R (2008) Differential snowpack accumulation and water dynamics in aspen and conifer communities: Implications for water yield and ecosystem function. Ecosystems 11:569–581Google Scholar
  97. Lamontagne M, Margolis H, Bigras F (1998) Photosynthesis of black spruce, jack pine, and trembling aspen after artificially induced frost during the growing season. Can J For Res 28:1–12Google Scholar
  98. Landhausser SM, Lieffers VJ (2002) Leaf area renewal, root retention and carbohydrate reserves in a clonal tree species following above-ground disturbance. J Ecol 90:658–665Google Scholar
  99. Lindroth RL, Bloomer MS (1991) Biochemical ecology of the forest tent caterpillar: responses to dietary protein and phenolic glycosides. Oecologia 86:408–413Google Scholar
  100. Lindroth RL, Hemming JDC (1990) Responses of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to tremulacin, an aspen phenolic glycoside. Environ Entomol 19:842–847Google Scholar
  101. Lindroth RL, Hwang SY (1996a) Diversity, redundancy and multiplicity in chemical defense systems of aspen. Rec Adv Phytochem 30:25–56Google Scholar
  102. Lindroth RL, Hwang SY (1996b) Clonal variation in foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx). Biochem Syst Ecol 24:357–364Google Scholar
  103. Lindroth RL, Hwang SY, Osier TL (1999) Phytochemical variation in quaking aspen: effects on gypsy moth susceptibility to nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Chem Ecol 25:1331–1341Google Scholar
  104. Logan JA, Regniere J, Gray DR, Munson AS (2007) Risk assessment in the face of a changing environment: Gypsy moth and climate change in Utah. Ecol Appl 17:101–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. MacIssac DA, Comeau PG, Macdonald SE (2006) Dynamics of regeneration gaps following harvest of aspen stands. Can J For Res 36:1818–1833Google Scholar
  106. Maherali H, Pockman WT, Jackson RB (2004) Adaptive variation in the vulnerability of woody plants to xylem cavitation. Ecology 85:2184–2199Google Scholar
  107. Manier DJ, Laven RD (2002) Changes in landscape patterns associated with the persistence of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado. For Ecol Manage 167:263–284Google Scholar
  108. Manion PD (1991) Tree disease concepts. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  109. Margolis EQ, Swetnam TW, Allen CD (2007) A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern rocky mountains. Can J For Res 37:2227–2241Google Scholar
  110. Martin RR, Berbee JG, Omuemu JO (1982) Isolation of a potyvirus from declining clones of Populus. Phytopathology 72:1158–1162Google Scholar
  111. Mattson WJ, Herms DA, Witter JA, Allen DC (1991) Woody plant grazing systems: North American outbreak folivores and their host plants. In: Baranchikov YN, Mattson WJ, Hain FP, Payne TL (eds) Forest insect guilds: patterns of interaction with host trees. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, General Technical Report NE-153, Radnor, PA, pp 53–84Google Scholar
  112. McDonough W (1979) Quaking aspen-seed germination and early seedling growth. USDA Forest Research Paper INT-234, Intermountain forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, Utah, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  113. McDowell N, Pockman WT, Allen CD, Breshears DD, Cobb N, Kolb T, Plaut J, Sperry J, West A, Williams DG, Yepez EA (2008) Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? New Phytol 178:719–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Meagher MM, Houston DB (1998) Yellowstone and the biology of time. Oklahoma State University Press, Norman, Oklahoma, USAGoogle Scholar
  115. Messier C, Doucet R, Ruel JC, Claveau Y, Kelly C, Lechowicz MJ (1999) Functional ecology of advance regeneration in relation to light in boreal forests. Can J For Res 29:812–823Google Scholar
  116. Mock KE, Rowe CA, Hooten MB, Dewoody J, Hipkins VD (2008) Clonal dynamics in western North American aspen (Populus tremuloides). Mol Ecol 17:4827–4844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Mueggler W (1985a) Forage. In: DeByle N, Winokur R (eds) Aspen: ecology and management, General Technical Report RM-119. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, pp 129–134Google Scholar
  118. Mueggler W (1985b) Vegetation associations. In: DeByle N, Winokur R (eds) Aspen: ecology and management, General Technical Report RM-119. USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, pp 45–55Google Scholar
  119. Mueggler WF (1989) Age distribution and reproduction of intermountain aspen stands. West J Appl For 4:41–45Google Scholar
  120. Namroud MC, Leduc A, Tremblay F, Bergeron Y (2006) Simulations of clonal species genotypic diversity – trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) as a case study. Conserv Genet 7:415–426Google Scholar
  121. Oksanen E, Amores G, Kokko H, Santamaria JM, Karenlampi L (2001) Genotypic variation in growth and physiological responses of Finnish hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides x P-tremula) to elevated tropospheric ozone concentration. Tree Physiol 21:1171–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Osier TL, Lindroth RL (2001) Effects of genotype, nutrient availability, and defoliation on aspen phytochemistry and insect performance. J Chem Ecol 27:1289–1313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Osier TL, Hwang S-Y, Lindroth RL (2000) Within- and between-year variation in early season phytochemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones. Biochem Syst Ecol 28:197–208Google Scholar
  124. Ostry ME, Wilson LF, McNabb HS, Moore LM (1988) A guide to insect, disease, and animal pests of poplars. Agricultural Handbook 677. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington DC, 118pGoogle Scholar
  125. Pankuch JM, Blenis PV, Lieffers VJ, Mallett KI (2003) Fungal colonization of aspen roots following mechanical site preparation. Can J For Res 33:2372–2379Google Scholar
  126. Paragi TF, Haggstrom DA (2007) Short-term responses of aspen to fire and mechanical treatments in interior Alaska. North J Appl For 24:153–157Google Scholar
  127. Peterson EB, Peterson NM (1992) Ecology, management and use of aspen and balsam poplar in the prairie provinces. Canada Forestry, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  128. Ripple WJ, Beschta RL (2004) Wolves and the ecology of fear: Can predation risk structure ecosystems? Bioscience 54:755–766Google Scholar
  129. Ripple WJ, Larsen EJ, Renkin RA, Smith DW (2001) Trophic cascades among wolves, elk and aspen on Yellowstone National Park's northern range. Biol Conserv 102:227–234Google Scholar
  130. Rogers P (2002) Using forest health monitoring to assess aspen forest cover change in the southern rockies ecoregion. For Ecol Manage 155:223–236Google Scholar
  131. Romme WH, Turner MG, Wallace LL, Walker JS (1995) Aspen, Elk and fire in northern Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 76:2097–2106Google Scholar
  132. Romme WH, Turner MG, Tuskan GA, Reed RA (2005) Establishment, persistence, and growth of aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings in Yellowstone National Park. Ecology 86:404–418Google Scholar
  133. Ryan MG, Yoder BJ (1997) Hydraulic limits to tree height and tree growth. Bioscience 47:235–242Google Scholar
  134. Sankey TT, Montagne C, Graumlich L, Lawrence R, Nielsen J (2006) Twentieth century forest-grassland ecotone shift in Montana under differing livestock grazing pressure. For Ecol Manage 234:282–292Google Scholar
  135. Schier GA (1975) Deterioration of Aspen clones in the middle Rocky Mountains. USDA Forest Service Research Paper, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station (No. INT-170), pp 1–14Google Scholar
  136. Seager R, Ting MF, Held I, Kushnir Y, Lu J, Vecchi G, Huang HP, Harnik N, Leetmaa A, Lau NC, Li CH, Velez J, Naik N (2007) Model projections of an imminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America. Science 316:1181–1184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Shepperd W, Jones J (1985) Nurse crop. In: DeByle NV, Winokur RP (eds) Aspen: ecology and management in the western United States. General Technical Report, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service (No. RM-119), pp 181–184Google Scholar
  138. Shepperd WD, Bartos DL, Mata SA (2001) Above- and below-ground effects of aspen clonal regeneration and succession to conifers. Can J For Res 31:739–745Google Scholar
  139. Shields WJ Jr, Bockheim JG (1981) Deterioration of trembling aspen clones in the Great Lakes region. Can J For Res 11:530–537Google Scholar
  140. Sinclair WA, Lyon HH (2005) Diseases of trees and shrubs. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  141. Smith AE, Smith FW (2005) Twenty-year change in aspen dominance in pure aspen and mixed aspen/conifer stands on the Uncompahgre Plateau, Colorado, USA. For Ecol Manage 213:338–348Google Scholar
  142. Sperry J, Nichols K, June E, Sullivan J, Eastlack S (1994) Xylem embolism in ring-porous, diffuse-porous, and coniferous trees of northern Utah and interior Alaska. Ecology 75:1736–1752Google Scholar
  143. Stevens MT, Waller DM, Lindroth RL (2007) Resistance and tolerance in Populus tremuloides: genetic variation, costs, and environmental dependency. Evol Ecol 21:829–847Google Scholar
  144. Stohlgren TJ, Chong GW, Kalkhan MA, Schell LD (1997) Multiscale sampling of plant diversity: effects of minimum mapping unit size. Ecol Appl 7:1064–1074Google Scholar
  145. van Mantgem PJ et al (2009) Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States. Science 323:521–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Van Wagner CE, Finney MA, Heathcott M (2006) Historical fire cycles in the Canadian Rocky Mountain parks. For Sci 52:704–717Google Scholar
  147. White CA, Feller MC (2001) Predation risk and elk-aspen foraging patterns. In: Shepperd WD, Binkley D, Barton DL, Stohlgren TJ, and Eskew LG (eds) Sustaining aspen in western landscapes: Symposium proceedings. USDA Forest Service Proceedings, RMRS-P-18, pp 61–80Google Scholar
  148. White CA, Olmsted CE, Kay CE (1998) Aspen, elk, and fire in the Rocky Mountain national parks of North America. Wildl Soc Bull 26:449–462Google Scholar
  149. Wooley S, Walker S, Vernon J, Lindroth R (2008) Aspen decline, aspen chemistry and elk herbivory: are they linked? Rangelands 30:17–21Google Scholar
  150. Worrall JJ, Sullivan KF, Harrington TC, Steime JP (2004) Incidence, host relations and population structure of Armillaria ostoyae in Colorado campgrounds. For Ecol Manage 192:191–206Google Scholar
  151. Worrall JJ, Egeland L, Eager T, Mask RA, Johnson EW, Kemp PA, Shepperd WD (2008) Rapid mortality of Populus tremuloides in southwestern Colorado, USA. For Ecol Manage 255:686–696Google Scholar
  152. Yochim MJ (2001) Aboriginal overkill overstated, errors in Charles Kay's hypothesis. Hum Nat 12:2Google Scholar
  153. Yu QB, Tigerstedt PMA, Haapanen M (2001) Growth and phenology of hybrid aspen clones (Populus tremula L. x Populus tremuloides Michx.). Silva Fenn 35:15–25Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel B. St. Clair
    • 1
    Email author
  • John Guyon
    • 2
  • Jack Donaldson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Plant and Wildlife SciencesBrigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  2. 2.USDA Forest Service, Intermountain RegionOgdenUSA
  3. 3.Living BiographyOremUSA

Personalised recommendations