Hop-to-Hop Reliability in IP-Based Wireless Sensor Networks - A Cross-Layer Approach

  • Gerald Wagenknecht
  • Markus Anwander
  • Torsten Braun
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5546)

Abstract

To interconnect a wireless sensor network (WSN) to the Internet, we propose to use TCP/IP as the standard protocol for all network entities. We present a cross layer designed communication architecture, which contains a MAC protocol, IP, a new protocol called Hop-to-Hop Reliability (H2HR) protocol, and the TCP Support for Sensor Nodes (TSS) protocol. The MAC protocol implements the MAC layer of beacon-less personal area networks (PANs) as defined in IEEE 802.15.4. H2HR implements hop-to-hop reliability mechanisms. Two acknowledgment mechanisms, explicit and implicit ACK are supported. TSS optimizes using TCP in WSNs by implementing local retransmission of TCP data packets, local TCP ACK regeneration, aggressive TCP ACK recovery, congestion and flow control algorithms. We show that H2HR increases the performance of UDP, TCP, and RMST in WSNs significantly. The throughput is increased and the packet loss ratio is decreased. As a result, WSNs can be operated and managed using TCP/IP.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Dunkels, A., Voigt, T., Alonso, J., Ritter, H., Schiller, J.: Connecting Wireless Sensornets with TCP/IP Networks. In: Langendoerfer, P., Liu, M., Matta, I., Tsaoussidis, V. (eds.) WWIC 2004. LNCS, vol. 2957, pp. 143–152. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Braun, T., Voigt, T., Dunkels, A.: TCP Support for Sensor Networks. In: WONS 2007, Obergurgl, Austria, pp. 162–169 (January 2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anwander, M., Wagenknecht, G., Braun, T.: Management of Wireless Sensor Networks using TCP/IP. In: IWSNE 2008, Santorini Island, Greece, pp. 1–8 (June 2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Balakrishnan, H., Seshan, S., Amir, E., Katz, R.H.: Improving TCP/IP Performance over Wireless Networks. In: Mobicom 1995, Berkeley, CA, USA, pp. 2–11 (November 1995)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barakat, C., Altman, E.: Bandwidth Tradeoff between TCP and Link-level FEC. Computer Networks 39(2), 133–150 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fu, Z., Zerfos, P., Luo, H., Lu, S., Zhang, L., Gerla, M.: The Impact of Multihop Wireless Channel on TCP Throughput and Loss. In: INFOCOM 2003, San Francisco, CA, USA, pp. 1744–1753 (April 2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dunkels, A., Voigt, T., Alonso, J., Ritter, H.: Distributed TCP Caching for Wireless Sensor Networks. In: MedHocNet 2004, Bodrum, Turkey (June 2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Intanagonwiwat, C., Govindan, R., Estrin, D., Heidemann, J., Silva, F.: Directed Diffusion for Wireless Sensor Networking. IEEE/ACM Transaction on Networking 11(1), 2–16 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stann, F., Heidemann, J.: RMST: Reliable Data Transport in Sensor Networks. In: SNPA 2003, Anchorage, AK, USA, May 2003, pp. 102–112 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wan, C.Y., Campbell, A.T., Krishnamurthy, L.: PSFQ: A Reliable Transport Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. In: WSNA 2002, Atlanta, GA, USA, pp. 1–11 (September 2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Srivastava, V., Motani, M.: Cross-Layer Design: A Survey and the Road Ahead. IEEE Communications Magazine 43(12), 112–119 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    OMNeT++: Discrete Event Simulation System, http://www.omnetpp.org
  13. 13.
    CC2420: Datasheet for the Chipcon CC2420 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 compliant RF Transceiver, Online (January 2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pham, H.N., Pediaditakis, D., Boulis, A.: From Simulation to Real Deployments in WSN and Back. In: WoWMoM 2007, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 1–6 (June 2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald Wagenknecht
    • 1
  • Markus Anwander
    • 1
  • Torsten Braun
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Computer Science and Applied MathematicsUniversity of BernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations