Inventing Requirements with Creativity Support Tools

  • Inger Kristine Karlsen
  • Neil Maiden
  • Andruid Kerne
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5512)


[Context and motivation] Creativity is indispensable for software systems to deliver progress and competitive advantage for stakeholders. Yet it is rarely supported in requirements processes. [Question/problem] This paper investigated integration of two software tools, one for generating requirements with scenarios, the other for supporting people to think creatively while finding and collecting information. The effectiveness of the integration was investigated. [Principal ideas/results] The technical integration is described, and an evaluation is reported. [Contribution] Results reveal some effect on the novelty of the requirements generated, and have implications for the design of tools to support creative requirements processes.


Requiremensts discovery creativity creativity support tools 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baddeley, A.D.: Human memory: Theory and practice. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hove (1990)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fischer, G., Giaccardi, E.: Sustaining Social Creativity. Communications of the ACM 50(12), 28–29 (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Floyd, C., Mehl, W.-M., Reisin, F.-M., Schmidt, G., Wolf, G.: Out of Scandinavia: Alternative Approaches to Software Design and System Development. Human-Computer Interaction 4(4), 253–350 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Greene, S.L.: Characteristics of Applications that Support Creativity. Communications of the ACM 45(10), 100–104 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Henderson, D.A., Card, S.K.: Rooms: the use of multiple virtual workspaces to reduce space contention in a window-based graphical user interface. ACM Transactions on Graphics 5(3), 211–243 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Horvitz, E.: Principles of Mixed-Initiative User Interfaces. In: Proc. ACM CHI 1999, pp. 159–166 (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Interface Ecology Lab, combinFormation (2007),
  8. 8.
    Kerne, A., Koh, E.: Representing Collections as Compositions to Support Distributed Creative Cognition and Situated Creative Learning. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia 13(2), 135–162 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kerne, A., Koh, E., Smith, S.M., Webb, A., Dworaczyk, B.: combinFormation: Mixed-Initiative Composition of Image and Text Surrogates Promotes Information Discovery. ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS) 27(1), 1–45 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koh, E., Kerne, A., Damaraju, S., Webb, A., Sturdivant, D.: Generating views of the Buzz: Browsing popular media and authoring using mixed-initiative composition. In: Proc. ACM Multimedia, pp. 226–237 (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Maiden, N., Robertson, S., Gizikis, A.: Provoking Creativity: Imagine What Your Requirements Could be Like. IEEE Software 21(5), 68–75 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Maiden, N.A.M., Ncube, C., Robertson, S.: Can Requirements Be Creative? Experiences with an Enhanced Air Space Management System. In: Proceedings 28th International Conference on Software Engineering ICSE, pp. 632–641. ACM Press, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mamykina, L., Candy, L., Edmonds, E.: Collaborative Creativity. Communications of the ACM 45(10), 96–99 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mavin, A., Maiden, N.A.M.: Determining Socio-Technical Systems Requirements: Experiences with Generating and Walking Through Scenarios. In: Proc. IEEE Requirements Engineering, pp. 213–222 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mich, L., Anesi, C., Berry, D.M.: Requirements Engineering and Creativity: An Innovative Approach Based on a Model of the Pragmatics of Communication. In: Proceedings REFSQQ 2004 Workshop, Riga (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    National Science Foundation Workshop Report Creativity Support Tools, Washington, DC, June 13-14 (2005), (retrieved, 02/12/2008)
  17. 17.
    Nuseibeh, B.A., Easterbrook, S.M.: Requirements Engineering: A Roadmap. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nguyen, L., Carroll, J.M., Swatman, P.A.: Supporting and Monitoring the Creativity of IS Personnel During the Requirements Engineering Process. In: Proc. Hawaii Int’l Conf. Systems Sciences (HICSS-33). IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos (2000)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Obsorn, A.F.: Applied Imagination: Principles and Procedures of Creative Problem Solving. Charles Scribener’s Sons, New York (1953)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Robertson, J.: Eureka! Why Analysts Should Invent Requirements. IEEE Software, 20–22 (July/August 2002)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schneiderman, B.: Creativity Support Tools – Accelerating Discovery and Innovation. Communications of the ACM, 20–29 (December 2007)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sternberg, R.J. (ed.): Handbook of creativity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inger Kristine Karlsen
    • 1
  • Neil Maiden
    • 1
  • Andruid Kerne
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Human-Computer Interaction Design and Centre for Creativity in Professional PracticeCity UniversityLondonUK
  2. 2.Interface Ecology LabTexas A&M UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations