Advertisement

Bluetooth Tracking without Discoverability

  • Simon Hay
  • Robert Harle
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5561)

Abstract

Outdoor location-based services are now prevalent due to advances in mobile technology and GPS. Indoors, however, even coarse location remains unavailable. Bluetooth has been identified as a potential location technology that mobile consumer devices already support, easing deployment and maintenance. However, Bluetooth tracking systems to date have relied on the Bluetooth inquiry mode to constantly scan for devices. This process is very slow and can be a security and privacy risk. In this paper we investigate an alternative: connection-based tracking. This permits tracking of a previously identified handset within a field of fixed base stations. Proximity is determined by creating and monitoring low-level Bluetooth connections that do not require authorisation. We investigate the properties of the low-level connections both theoretically and in practice, and show how to construct a building-wide tracking system based on this technique. We conclude that the technique is a viable alternative to inquiry-based Bluetooth tracking.

Keywords

Mobile Device Ubiquitous Computing Link Quality Indoor Location Privacy Risk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hightower, J., Borriello, G.: Location systems for ubiquitous computing. Computer (January 2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Addlesee, M., Curwen, R., Hodges, S., Newman, J.F., Steggles, P., Ward, A., Hopper, A.: Implementing a sentient computing system. IEEE Computer 34(8), 50–56 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harter, A., Hopper, A., Steggles, P., Ward, A., Webster, P.: The anatomy of a context-aware application. In: MobiCom 1999: Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on Mobile computing and networking, pp. 59–68 (1999)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Want, R., Hopper, A., Falcao, V., Gibbons, J.: The Active Badge location system. ACM Transactions on Information Systems 10(1), 91–102 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Harle, R., Hopper, A.: The potential for location-aware power management. In: UbiComp 2008: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (September 2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rehman, W., Lara, E., Saroiu, S.: Cilos: a CDMA indoor localization system. In: UbiComp 2008: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (September 2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bahl, P., Padmanabhan, V.: RADAR: an in-building RF-based user location and tracking system. In: INFOCOM 2000. Nineteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings, vol. 2, pp. 775–784. IEEE, Los Alamitos (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Youssef, M., Agrawala, A.: The Horus WLAN location determination system. In: MobiSys 2005: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Mobile systems, applications, and services (June 2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anastasi, G., Bandelloni, R., Conti, M., Delmastro, F., Gregori, E., Mainetto, G.: Experimenting an indoor Bluetooth-based positioning service. In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, April 2003, pp. 480–483 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cheung, K., Intille, S., Larson, K.: An inexpensive Bluetooth-based indoor positioning hack. In: UbiComp 2006: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing Extended Abstracts (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bargh, M., Groote, R.: Indoor localization based on response rate of bluetooth inquiries. In: MELT 2008: Proceedings of the first ACM international workshop on Mobile entity localization and tracking in GPS-less environments (September 2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jevring, M., de Groote, R., Hesselman, C.: Dynamic optimization of Bluetooth networks for indoor localization. In: AASN 2008: First International Workshop on Automated and Autonomous Sensor Networks (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Huang, A.: The use of Bluetooth in Linux and location aware computing. Master of Science dissertationGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bruno, R., Delmastro, F.: Design and analysis of a Bluetooth-based indoor localization system. PersonalWireless Communications, 711–725 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hallberg, J., Nilsson, M., Synnes, K.: Positioning with Bluetooth. In: ICT 2003: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Telecommunications, vol. 2(23), pp. 954–958 (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pandya, D., Jain, R., Lupu, E.: Indoor location estimation using multiple wireless technologies. In: PIMRC 2003: 14th IEEE Proceedings on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, August 2003, vol. 3, pp. 2208–2212 (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Naya, F., Noma, H., Ohmura, R., Kogure, K.: Bluetooth-based indoor proximity sensing for nursing context awareness. In: Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers, September 2005, pp. 212–213 (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jakobsson, M., Wetzel, S.: Security weaknesses in Bluetooth. In: Naccache, D. (ed.) CT-RSA 2001. LNCS, vol. 2020, pp. 176–191. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    LaMarca, A., Chawathe, Y., Consolvo, S., Hightower, J., Smith, I., Scott, J., Sohn, T., Howard, J., Hughes, J., Potter, F., Tabert, J., Powledge, P., Borriello, G., Schilit, B.N.: Place lab: Device positioning using radio beacons in the wild. In: Gellersen, H.-W., Want, R., Schmidt, A. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2005. LNCS, vol. 3468, pp. 116–133. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Graumann, D., Lara, W., Hightower, J., Borriello, G.: Real-world implementation of the location stack: the universal location framework. In: WMCSA 2004: Proceedings of the 5th IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, pp. 122–128 (2003)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gwon, Y., Jain, R., Kawahara, T.: Robust indoor location estimation of stationary and mobile users. In: INFOCOM 2004. Twenty-third AnnualJoint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, vol. 2, pp. 1032–1043 (2004)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schilit, B.N., LaMarca, A., Borriello, G., Griswold, W., McDonald, D., Lazowska, E., Balachandran, A., Hong, J., Iverson, V.: Challenge: Ubiquitous location-aware computing and the place lab initiative. In: WMASH 2003: Proceedings of the First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Mobile Applications and Services on WLAN (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Madhavapeddy, A., Tse, A.: A study of Bluetooth propagation using accurate indoor location mapping. In: Beigl, M., Intille, S.S., Rekimoto, J., Tokuda, H. (eds.) UbiComp 2005. LNCS, vol. 3660, pp. 105–122. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hylick, A., Sohan, R., Rice, A., Jones, B.: An analysis of hard drive energy consumption. In: MASCOTS 2008: Proceedings of the 16th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Hay
    • 1
  • Robert Harle
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Cambridge Computer LaboratoryUK

Personalised recommendations