Semantic Annotation of Web Pages Using Web Patterns

  • Milos Kudelka
  • Vaclav Snasel
  • Ondrej Lehecka
  • Eyas El-Qawasmeh
  • Jaroslav Pokorný
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4879)


This paper introduces a novel method for semantic annotation of web pages. We perform semantic annotation with regard to unwritten and empirically proven agreement between users and web designers using web patterns. This method is based on extraction of patterns, which are characteristic for a particular domain. A pattern provides formalization of the agreement and allows assigning semantics to parts of web pages. We will introduce experiments with this method and show its benefits for querying the web.


Plain Text Semantic Annotation Text Segment Data Entity Pattern Entity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Baumgartner, R., Flesca, S., Gottlob, G.: Visual Web Information Extraction with Lixto. In: Proc. of the 27th Int. Conference on Very Large Data Bases, pp. 119–128 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chakrabarti, S.: Mining the Web: Discovering Knowledge from Hypertext Data. Morgan Kaufman Publishers, San Francisco (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ciravegna, F., Chapman, S., Dingli, A., Wilks, Y.: Learning to harvest information for the semantic web. In: Bussler, C.J., Davies, J., Fensel, D., Studer, R. (eds.) ESWS 2004. LNCS, vol. 3053, pp. 312–326. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cordón, O., Moya, F., Zarco, C.: Fuzzy Logic and Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms as Soft Computing Tools for Persistent Query Learning, in Text Retrieval Environments. In: IEEE Int. Conf. on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE 2004), Budapest, Hungary, pp. 571–576 (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dill, S., Eiron, N., Gibson, D., Gruhl, D., Guha, R., Jhingran, A., Kanungo, T., McCurley, K.S., Rajagopalan, S., Tomkins, A., Tomlin, J.A., Zien, J.Y.: A Case for Automated Large-Scale Semantic Annotation. Journal of Web Semantics 1(1), 115–132 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Van Duyne, D.K., Landay, J.A., Hong, J.I.: The Design of Sites: Patterns, Principles, and Processes for Crafting a Customer-Centered Web Experience. Pearson Education, London (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ferragin, P., Gulli, A.: A personalized search engine based on Web-snippet hierarchical clustering. In: Proc. of 14th Int. Conf. on World Wide Web, Chiba, Japan, pp. 801–810 (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., Vlissides, J.: Design Patterns – Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1995)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Graham, I.: A pattern language for web usability. Addison-Wesley, Reading (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Handschuh, S., Staab, S., Ciravegna, F.: S-CREAM – semi-automatic cREAtion of metadata. In: Gómez-Pérez, A., Benjamins, V.R. (eds.) EKAW 2002. LNCS, vol. 2473, p. 358. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Husek, D., Owais, S., Kromer, P., Snasel, V., Neruda, R.: Implementing GP on Optimizing both Boolean and Extended Boolean Queries in IR and Fuzzy IR systems with Respect to the Users Profiles. In: 2006 IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence, CEC (accepted, 2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ivory, M.Y., Megraw, R.: Evolution of Web Site Design Patterns. ACM Transactions on Information Systems 23(4), 463–497 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jianming Li, L.Z., Yu, Y.: Learning to generate semantic annotation for domain specific sentences. In: Knowledge Markup And Semantic Annotation Workshop in K-CAP 2001 (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Karov, Y., Edelman, S.: Similarity-based Word Sense Disambiguation. Computational Linguistics 24(1), 41–59 (1998)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kiryakov, A., Popov, B., Ognyanoff, D., Manov, D., Kirilov, A., Goranov, M.: Semantic annotation, indexing, and retrieval. In: Fensel, D., Sycara, K.P., Mylopoulos, J. (eds.) ISWC 2003. LNCS, vol. 2870, pp. 484–499. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kiyavitskaya, N., Zeni, N., Cordy, J.R., Mich, L., Mylopoulos, J.: Semantic Annotation as Design Recovery. In: Gil, Y., Motta, E., Benjamins, V.R., Musen, M.A. (eds.) ISWC 2005. LNCS, vol. 3729. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kraft, D.H., Petry, F.E., Buckles, B.P., Sadasivan, T.: Genetic Algorithms for Query Optimization in Information Retrieval: Relevance Feedback. In: Sanchez, E., Shibata, T., Zadeh, L.A. (eds.) Genetic Algorithms and Fuzzy Logic Systems. World Scientific, Singapore (1997)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li, Z., Ng, W.K., Sun, A.: Web data extraction based on structural similarity. Knowl. Inf. Syst. 8(4), 438–461 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mullet, K., Sano, D.: Designing visual interfaces: Communication oriented techniques. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1994)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Naimpally, S.A., Warrack, B.D.: Proximity Spaces. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1970)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pivk, A.: Automatic Ontology Generation from Web Tabular Structures. PhD thesis, University of Maribor (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reis, D.C., Golgher, P.B., Silva, A.S., Laender, A.F.: Automatic web news extraction using tree edit distance. In: WWW 2004: Proc. of the 13th Int. Conf. on World Wide Web, pp. 502–511. ACM Press, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sean, L., Lee, S., Rager, D., Handler, J.: Ontology-based web agents. In: Proc. of the First Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents (Agents 1997), pp. 59–68. ACM Press, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tidwell, J.: Designing Interfaces: Patterns for Effective Interaction Design. O’Reilly Media, Inc., Sebastopol (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tijerino, Y.A., Embley, D.W., Lonsdale, D.W., Ding, Y., Nagy, G.: Towards Ontology Generation from Tables. World Wide Web 8(3), 261–285 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wellhausen, T.: User Interface Design for Searching. A Pattern Language (May 29, 2005),
  27. 27.
    Wechsler, K., Baier, J., Nussbaum, M., Baeza-Yates, R.: Semantic search in the WWW supported by a cognitive model. In: Li, Q., Wang, G., Feng, L. (eds.) WAIM 2004. LNCS, vol. 3129, pp. 315–324. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milos Kudelka
    • 1
  • Vaclav Snasel
    • 1
  • Ondrej Lehecka
    • 1
  • Eyas El-Qawasmeh
    • 2
  • Jaroslav Pokorný
    • 3
  1. 1.Computer Science Dept.VSB – Technical University of OstravaCzech Republic
  2. 2.Computer Science Dept.Jordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan
  3. 3.Department of Software EngineeringCharles University of PragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations