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Membrane Distillation for Solar Desalination

  • Joachim KoschikowskiEmail author
  • Marcel Wieghaus
  • Matthias Rommel
Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

Membrane distillation (MD) is a hybrid thermal/membrane desalination process in which pure water vapour from a salt solution passes through a hydrophobic membrane, driven by a difference in temperature, and condenses on the opposite side. This chapter starts with a detailed explanation of the principles behind membrane distillation. The four main types of MD technology are then discussed and the technical advantages and disadvantages of each technology are outlined, focusing on the crucial features for coupling MD with solar thermal energy. Heat and mass transfer phenomena are examined with regard to the influences of temperature polarisation and salt concentration on process performance. Finally, available semi-commercial MD systems are briefly presented with details on solar thermally driven MD systems for the autonomous desalination of brackish and sea water.

Keywords

Knudsen Diffusion Membrane Distillation Compact System Vapour Pressure Difference Grand Canary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AGMD

air gap membrane distillation

DC

direct current

DCMD

direct contact membrane distillation

MD

membrane distillation

MED

multi effect distillation

MPP

maximum power point

MSF

multi stage flash

PP

polypropylene

PTFE

polytetrafluorethylene

PV

photovoltaic

PVDF

polyvinylidenfluoride

SGMD

sweeping gas membrane distillation

VMD

vacuum membrane distillation

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joachim Koschikowski
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Marcel Wieghaus
    • 1
    • 2
  • Matthias Rommel
    • 3
  1. 1.Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISEFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.PSE AG - Projects in Solar EnergyFreiburgGermany
  3. 3.Institute for Solar Technology SPF University of Applied Sciences Rapperswil HSR Oberseestr. 10RapperswilSwitzerland

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